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Source: Data modified from Weber, 1989.

Source: Data modified from Weber, 1989.

infarction, other forms of atherosclerotic disease, and diabetes (obesity and hypertriglyceridemia). Atherosclerosis is a major complication in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Bleeding time is longer in women than in men and longer in young than in old people. There are ethnic differences in bleeding time that appear to be related to diet. Table 12 shows that the higher the ratio of omega-6 : omega-3 fatty acids in platelet phospholipids, the higher the death rate from cardiovascular disease (Weber, 1989). Figure 2 shows that in India, the higher omega-6 : omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the diet led to a higher prevalence of type II diabetes in the population as a result of changes in the vegetable oil consumption of the population (Raheja, et al., 1993).

In the early stages of evolution, cellular growth and evolutionary success required that the developing organism respond to a myriad of environmental factors. In particular, the organism needed to be able to fulfill its nutrient needs and to develop a sense for nutrient deficiency and excess in order to turn on pathways of synthesis or storage. Thus, nutrient control of gene expression probably evolved as one of the earliest environmental sensor

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