Info

aP : S = polyunsaturated to saturated fat. Source: Modified from Eaton et al., 1998.

aP : S = polyunsaturated to saturated fat. Source: Modified from Eaton et al., 1998.

that increase the risk for coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity (Fanaian, et al., 1996; Simopoulos, 1994a; Simopoulos, 1994b).

A number of anthropological, nutritional, and genetic studies indicate that human's overall diet, including energy intake and energy expenditure, has changed over the past 10,000 yr, with major changes occurring during the past 150 yr in the type and amount of fat and in vitamins C and E intake (Eaton and Konner, 1985; Leaf and Weber, 1987; Simopoulos, 1995a; Simopoulos, 1995b; Simopoulos, 1998b; Simopoulos, 1999a; Simopoulos and Visioli, 2000) (Table 1, Fig. 1). Eaton and Konner (1985) have estimated higher intakes for protein, calcium, potassium, and ascorbic acid, and lower sodium intakes for the diet of the late Paleolithic period than the current US and Western diets. Most of our food is calorically concentrated in comparison with wild game and the uncultivated fruits and vegetables of the Paleolithic diet. Paleolithic man consumed fewer calories and drank water, whereas today most drinks to quench thirst contain calories. Today, industrialized societies are characterized by (1) an increase in energy intake and decrease in energy expenditure, (2) an increase in saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acids, and trans fatty acids, and a decrease in omega-3 fatty acid intake, (3) a decrease in complex carbohydrates and fiber, (4) an increase in cereal grains, but a decrease in fruits and vegetables, and (5) a decrease in protein, antioxidants, and calcium intake (Eaton and Konner, 1985; Eaton et al., 1988; Eaton et al., 1998; Simopoulos 1995c; Simopoulos, 1998b; Simopoulos 1999a) (Tables 1 and 2).

3. ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS AND THE OMEGA-6 : OMEGA-3 BALANCE

3.1. Large-Scale Production of Vegetable Oils

The increased consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the last 100 yr is the result of the development of technology at the turn of the century that marked the beginning of the modern vegetable oil industry and the result of modern agriculture with the emphasis on grain feeds for domestic livestock (grains are rich in omega-6 fatty acids) (Kirshenbauer, 1960). The invention of the continuous screw press, named Expeller® by V.D. Anderson,

Table 3

Comparison of Dietary Fats

Saturated _polymmtiimUd fat_ Monounsaturated Cholesterol

Dietary fat fat (%) LA (%) LNA (%) LA : LNA (%) fat (%) (%)

Fatty acid content normalized to 100%

Saturated _polymmtiimUd fat_ Monounsaturated Cholesterol

Dietary fat fat (%) LA (%) LNA (%) LA : LNA (%) fat (%) (%)

Fatty acid content normalized to 100%

Flaxseed oil

Keep Your Weight In Check During The Holidays

Keep Your Weight In Check During The Holidays

A time for giving and receiving, getting closer with the ones we love and marking the end of another year and all the eating also. We eat because the food is yummy and plentiful but we don't usually count calories at this time of year. This book will help you do just this.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment