Info

(upper limit)e

< 8.0

MONOs'

aIf sufficient scientific evidence is not available to calculate an Estimated Average Requirement, a reference intake called an Adequate Intake (AI) is used instead of a Recommended Dietary Allowance. The AI is a value based on experimentally derived intake levels or approximations of observed mean nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of healthy people. The AI for children and adults is expected to meet or exceed the amount needed to maintain a defined nutritional state or criterion of adequacy in essentially all members of a specific healthy population; LA = linoleic acid; LNA = a-linolenic acid; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; TRANS-FA = trans fatty acids; SAT = saturated fatty acids; MONOs = monounsaturated fatty acids.

Although the recommendation is for AI, the Working Group felt that there is enough scientific evidence to also state an upper limit (UL) for LA of 6.67 g/d based on a 2000-kcal diet or of 3.0% of energy.

cFor pregnant and lactating women, ensure 300 mg/d of DHA.

dExcept for dairy products, other foods under natural conditions do not contain trans FA. Therefore, the Working Group does not recommend trans FA to be in the food supply as a result of hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids or high-temperature cooking (reused frying oils).

^Saturated fats should not comprise more than 8% of energy.

■'The Working Group recommended that the majority of fatty acids are obtained from monounsaturates. The total amount of fat in the diet is determined by the culture and dietary habits of people around the world (total fat ranges from 15% to 40% of energy) but with special attention to the importance of weight control and reduction of obesity.

Table A2

Adequate Intake^ for Infant Formula/Diet

Fatty Acid Percent of fatty acids

LAb 10.00

LNA 1.50

AAc 0.50

DHA 0.35 EPAd

aIf sufficient scientific evidence is not available to calculate an Estimated Average Requirement, a reference intake called an Adequate Intake (AI) is used instead of a Recommended Dietary Allowance. The AI is a value based on experimentally derived intake levels or approximations of observed mean nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of healthy people. The AI for children and adults is expected to meet or exceed the amount needed to maintain a defined nutritional state or criterion of adequacy in essentially all members of a specific healthy population; LA = linoleic acid; LNA = a-linolenic acid; AA = arachidonic acid; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; TRANS-FA = trans fatty acids; SAT = saturated fatty acids; MONOs = monounsaturated fatty acids.

The Working Group recognizes that in countries like Japan, the breast milk content of LA is 6-10% of fatty acids and the DHA is higher, about 0.6%. The formula/diet composition described here is patterned on infant formula studies in Western countries.

cThe Working Group endorsed the addition of the principal long-chain polyunsaturates, AA and DHA, to all infant formulas.

EPA is a natural constituent of breast milk, but in amounts more than 0.1% in infant formula may antagonize AA and interfere with infant growth.

Modulation of Receptor Signaling by Phospholipid Acyl Chain Composition

Drake C. Mitchell and Burton J. Litman

0 0

Post a comment