Applegate KR, Glomset JA. Computer-based modeling of the conformation and packing properties of docosahexaenoic acid. J Lipid Res 1986; 27:658-680. Bazan NG, de Turco R, Gordon WC. Pathways for the uptake and conservation of docosahexaenoic acid in photoreceptors and synapses: biochemical and autoradiographic studies. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1993; 71:690-698.

Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental Development in infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000; 42:174-181.

Brown MF. Modulation of rhodopsin function by properties of the membrane bilayer. Chem Phys Lipids 1994; 73:159-180.

Brzustowicz MR, Stillwell W, Wassall SR. Molecular organization of cholesterol in polyunsaturated phospholipid membranes: a solid state 2H NMR investigation. FEBS Lett 1999; 451:197-202. Cox KJ, Ho C, Lombardi V, Stubbs CD. Gramicidin conformational studies with mixed-chain unsaturated phospholipid bilayer systems. Biochemistry 1992; 31:1112-1117. Cullis PR, de Kruijff B. Lipid polymorphism and the functional roles of lipids in biological membranes.

Biochim Biophys Acta 1979; 559:399-420. Engelberg H. Low serum cholesterol and suicide. Lancet 1992; 339:727-729.

Dekker CJ, Geurts van Kessel WS, Klomp JP, Pieters J, De Kruijff B. Synthesis and polymorphic phase behaviour of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. Chem Phys Lipids 1983; 33:93-106.

Epand RM, Fuller N, Rand RP. Role of the position of unsaturation on the phase behavior and intrinsic curvature of phosphatidylethanolamines. Biophys J 1996; 71:1806-1810. Epand RM. Lipid polymorphism and protein-lipid interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1376:353-368. Gawrisch K, Holte LL. NMR investigations of non-lamellar phase promoters in the lamellar phase state. Chem Phys Lipids 1996; 81:105-116.

Gibson R, Makrides M. The role of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neonatal nutrition. Acta Paediatr 1998; 87:1017-1022.

Gibson NJ, Brown MF. Lipid headgroup and acyl chain composition modulate the MI-MII equilibrium of rhodopsin in recombinant membranes. Biochemistry 1993; 32:2438-2454.

Giorgione J, Epand RM, Buda C, Farkas Y. Role of phospholipids containing docosahexaenoyl chains in modulating the activity of protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:9767-9770.

Gruner SM. Intrinsic curvature hypothesis for biomembrane lipid composition: a role for nonbilayer lipids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82:3665-3669.

Greiner RS, Moriguchi T, Hutton A, Slotnick BM, Salem N Jr. Rats with low levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid show impaired performance in olfactory-based and spatial learning tasks. Lipids 1999; 34:S239-243.

Grynberg A, Fournier A, Sergiel JP, Athias P. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the phospholipids of rat heart muscle cells on adrenoceptor responsiveness and mechanism. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995; 27:2507-2520.

Hamosh M, Salem N Jr. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biol Neonate 1998; 74:106-120.

Hazel JR. Thermal adaptation in biological membranes: is homeoviscous adaptation the explanation? Ann Rev Phys 1995; 57:19-42.

Hernandez-Borrell J, Keough KM. Heteroacid phosphatidylcholines with different amounts of unsaturation respond differently to cholesterol. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993; 1153:277-282.

Hibbeln JR, Salem N Jr. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: When cholesterol does not satisfy. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62:1-9.

Holte LL, Peter SA, Sinnwell TM, Gawrisch K. 2H nuclear magnetic resonance order parameter profiles suggest a change of molecular shape for phosphatidylcholines containing a polyunsaturated acyl chain. Biophys J 1995; 68:2396-2403.

Holte LL, Separovic F, Gawrisch K. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of hydrocarbon chain packing in bilayers of polyunsaturated phospholipids. Lipids 1996; 31:S199-S203.

Huang C, Li S. Calorimetric and molecular mechanics studies of the thermotropic phase behavior of membrane phospholipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1422:273-307.

Hunter GW, Negash S, Squier TC. Phosphatidylethanolamine modulates Ca-ATPase function and dynamics. Biochemistry 1999; 38:1356-1364.

Huster D, Jin AJ, Arnold K, Gawrisch K. Water permeability of polyunsaturated lipid membranes measured by 17O NMR. Biophys J 1997; 73:855-864.

Huster D, Arnold K, Gawrisch K. Influence of docosahexaenoic acid and cholesterol on lateral lipid organization in phospholipid mixtures. Biochemistry 1998; 37:17,299-17,308.

Kang JX, Leaf A. Prevention of fatal cardiac arrhythmias by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71:202s-207s.

Kariel N, Davidson E, Keough KM. Cholesterol does not remove the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition of phosphatidylcholines containing two polyenoic acyl chains. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991; 1062:70-76.

Keough KM, Kariel N. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of aqueous dispersions of phosphatidyl-cholines containing two polyenoic chains. Biochim Biophys Acta 1987; 902:11-18.

Killian JA. Hydrophobic mismatch between proteins and lipids in membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1376:401-415.

Koenig BW, Strey HH, Gawrisch K. Membrane lateral compressibility determined by NMR and x-ray diffraction: effect of acyl chain polyunsaturation. Biophys J 1997; 73:1954-1966.

Kuwahara Y, Yanagishita T, Konno N, Katagiri T. Changes in microsomal membrane phospholipids and fatty acids and in activities of membrane-bound enzyme in diabetic rat heart. Basic Res Cardiol 1997; 92:214-222.

Lee AG. How lipids interact with an intrinsic membrane protein: the case of the calcium pump. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1376:381-390.

Li L, Zheng LX, Yang FY. Effect of propensity of hexagonal II phase formation on the activity of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase and H(+)-ATPase. Chem Phys Lipids 1995; 76:135-144.

Litman BJ, Lewis EN, Levin IW. Packing characteristics of highly unsaturated bilayer lipids: Raman spectroscopic studies of multilamellar phosphatidylcholine dispersions. Biochemistry 1991; 30:313-319.

Litman BJ, Mitchell DC. Rhodopsin structure and function. In: Lee AG, ed, Biomembranes, Volume 2A Jai, Greenwich, CT, 1996 , pp. 1-32.

Litman BJ, Mitchell DC. A role for phospholipid polyunsaturation in modulating membrane protein function. Lipids 1996; 31:S193-S197.

Litman BJ, Niu SL, Polozova A, Mitchell DC. The role of docosahexaenoic acid containing phospholipids in modulating G protein-coupled signaling pathways: Visual transduction. Mol Cell Neuorsci, In Press, 2001.

Matthews PL, Bartlett E, Ananthanarayanan VS, Keough KM. Reconstitution of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase in a series of phosphatidylcholines containing a saturated and an unsaturated chain: suggestion of an optimal lipid environment. Biochem Cell Biol 1993; 71:381-389.

McElhaney RN. The structure and function of the Acholeplasma laidlawii plasma membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta 1984; 779:1-42.

Mitchell DC, Straume M, Miller JL, Litman BJ. Modulation of metarhodopsin formation by cholesterol-induced ordering of bilayer lipids. Biochemistry 1990; 29:9143-9149.

Mitchell DC, Straume M, Litman BJ. Role of sn-1-saturated, sn-2-polyunsaturated phospholipids in control of membrane receptor conformational equilibrium: effects of cholesterol and acyl chain unsaturation on the metarhodopsin I in equilibrium with metarhodopsin II equilibrium. Biochemistry 1992; 31:662-670.

Mitchell DC, Litman BJ. Molecular order and dynamics in bilayers consisting of highly polyunsaturated phospholipids. Biophys J 1998; 74:879-891.

Mitchell DC, Litman BJ. Effect of cholesterol on molecular order and dynamics in highly polyunsaturated phospholipid bilayers. Biophys J 1998; 75:896-908.

Muldoon MF, Manuck SB, Matthews KA. Lowering cholesterol concentration and mortality: a quantitative review of primary prevention trials. Br Med J 1990; 301:309-314.

Nabekura J, Noguchi K, Witt MR, Nielsen M., Akaike N. Functional modulation of human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor by docosahexaenoic acid. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:11,05611,061.

Needham D, Nunn RS. Elastic deformation and failure of lipid bilayer membranes containing cholesterol. Biophys J 1990; 58:997-1009.

Neuringer M, Connor WE, Van Petten C, Barstad L. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and visual loss in infant rhesus monkeys. J Clin Invest 1984; 73:272-276.

Niebylski CD, Salem N Jr. A calorimetric investigation of a series of mixed-chain polyunsaturated phos-phatidylcholines: effect of sn-2 chain length and degree of unsaturation. Biophys J 1994; 67:2387-2393.

O'Brien DF, Costa LF, Ott RA. Photochemical functionality of rhodopsin-phospholipid recombinant membranes. Biochemistry 1977; 16:1295-1303.

Olbrich K, Rawicz W, Needham D, Evans E. Water permeability and mechanical strength of polyunsaturated lipid bilayers. Biophys J 2000; 79:321-327.

Palczewski K, Kumasaka T, Hori T, Behnke CA, Motoshima H, Fox BA, et al. Crystal structure of rhodopsin: A G protein-coupled receptor. Science 2000; 289:739-745.

Poling JS, Vicini S, Rogawski MA, Salem N Jr. Docosahexaenoic acid block of neuronal voltage-gated K+ channels: subunit selective antagonism by zinc. Neuropharmacology 1996; 35:969-982.

Polozova A, Litman BJ. Cholesterol dependent recruitment of di22:6 PC by a G protein-coupled receptor into lateral domains. Biophys J 2000; 79(5):2632-2643.

Rawicz W, Olbrich KC, McIntosh T, Needham D, Evans E. Effect of chain length and unsaturation on elasticity of lipid bilayers. Biophys J 2000; 79:328-339.

Salem N Jr. Omega-3 fatty acids: molecular and biochemical aspects. In: Spiller GA, Scala J, eds., New Protective Roles for Selected Nutrients. Alan R. Liss, New York, 1989, pp. 109-228.

Schroeder F, Woodford JK, Kavecansky J, Wood WG, Joiner, C. Cholesterol domains in biological membranes. Mol Membr Biol 1995; 12:113-119.

Separovic F, Gawrisch K. Effect of unsaturation on the chain order of phosphatidylcholines in a dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine matrix. Biophys J 1996; 71:274-282.

Skuladottir GV, Schioth HB, Gudbjarnason, S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in heart muscle and alpha 1-adreno-ceptor binding properties. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993; 1178:49-54.

Slater SJ, Kelly MB, Taddeo FJ, Ho C, Rubin E, Stubbs CD. The modulation of protein kinase C activity by membrane lipid bilayer structure. J Biol Chem 1994; 269:4866-4871.

Smaby JM, Momsen MM, Brockman HL, Brown RE. Phosphatidylcholine acyl unsaturation modulates the decrease in interfacial elasticity induced by cholesterol. Biophys J 1997; 73:1492-1505.

Stillwell W, Ehringer WD, Dumaual AC, Wassall SR. Cholesterol condensation of alpha-linolenic and gamma-linolenic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine monolayers and bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994; 1214:131-136.

Stinson AM, Wiegand RD, Anderson RE. Fatty acid and molecular species compositions of phospholipids and diacylglycerols. Exp Eye Res 1991; 52:213-218.

Stinson AM, Wiegand RD, and Anderson RE. Recycling of docosahexaenoic acid in rat retinas during n-3 fatty acid deficiency. J Lipid Res 1991; 32:2009-2017.

Straume M, Litman BJ. Influence of cholesterol on equilibrium and dynamic bilayer structure of unsaturated acyl chain phosphatidylcholine vesicles as determined from higher order analysis of fluorescence anisot-ropy decay. Biochemistry 1987; 26:5121-5126.

Straume M, Litman BJ. Equilibrium and dynamic bilayer structural properties of unsaturated acyl chain phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-rhodopsin recombinant vesicles and rod outer segment disk membranes as determined from higher order analysis of fluorescence anisotropy decay. Biochemistry 1988; 27:7723-7733.

Tanskanen A, Vartianinen E, Tuomilehto J, Viinamaki H, Lehtonen J, Puska P. High serum cholesterol and risk of suicide. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157:648-650.

van Ginkel G, van Langen H, Levine YK. The membrane fluidity concept revisited by polarized fluorescence spectroscopy on different model membranes containing unsaturated lipids and sterols. Biochimie 1989; 71:23-32.

Wiedmann TS, Pates RD, Beach JM, Salmon A, Brown MF. Lipid-protein interactions mediate the photochemical function of rhodopsin. Biochemistry 1988; 27:6469-6474.

Zerouga M, Jenski LJ, Stillwell W. Comparison of phosphatidylcholines containing one or two docosahexaenoic acyl chains on properties of phospholipid monolayers and bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995; 1236:266-272.

Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment