The Immune System and Stress

The immune system is the collection of organs, tissues, and cells responsible for the organism to resist attack by antigens or invasive foreign bodies, particularly microbes. In light of the research of the past few decades, the classic definition and conceptualization of the immune system has changed. The immune system, once considered a "closed system" (i.e., it reacts only to internal body events), is now recognized to be "open" and subject to activation by the nervous system. There are established strong relationships between the components of the immune system and behavior with reciprocal influences on each other. The recognition of these interactions gave rise to the label "psychoneuro-immunology" (PNI), a term probably first introduced by (Solomon, 1989). The popularity of PNI is easily attributable to the classic studies and writings of Ader and his associates (Ader et al., 1987) which have provided an impressive body of evidence that the nervous system is capable of modulating the immune response. Molecular research from many disciplines have confirmed that receptors for neuromodulators and neurohormones may be found on human T-lymphocytes and that activation of these receptors can be stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on the neuroactive substance. The immune system may be able to communicate with the nervous system using neuromodulators and neurohormones secreted by lymphocytes.

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

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