Cloning genes is now a technically straightforward process. Usually, cloning uses recombinant DNA techniques, which were developed in the early 1970s by Paul Berg, of Stanford University, and, independently, by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer, of Stanford and the University of California. These researchers devised methods for excising genes from DNA at restriction enzymes precise positions, using restriction enzymes and then using the enzyme enzymes that cut DNA known as DNA ligase to splice the resulting gene-containing fragment into at a particular sequence , . , a plasmid vector.
Plasmids are small, circular DNA molecules that occur naturally in many species of bacteria. The plasmids naturally replicate and are passed on to future generations of bacterial cells. To replicate, all plasmids must contain a sequence, called an origin of replication, which directs the bacterial DNA
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