Genetic Engineering versus Biotechnology

For many, the term "biotechnology" is often equated with the manipulation of genes, but, as Ereky's definition suggests, this is only one aspect of biotechnology. For the more specific technique of gene manipulation, the term "genetic engineering" is more appropriate. Genetic engineering dates from the 1970s. At that time molecular biologists devised methods to isolate, identify, and clone genes as well as to mutate, manipulate, and insert restriction enzymes them into other species. One of the key elements in such research was the discovery of restriction enzymes. These enzymes are able to cleave DNA at a limited number of sequence-specific sites and often leave "sticky ends." vector carrier Isolated DNA from any organism could be cleaved with a restriction enzyme hybrid combination of and then mixed with a preparation of a vector that had been cleaved with two different types the same restriction endonuclease. By virtue of the "sticky ends," a hybrid enzymes that cut DNA at a particular sequence

molecule could be created that contained the gene of interest, which could then be inserted into such a cloning vector. The importance of restriction endonucleases was recognized in 1978 by the awarding of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith for their discovery of these enzymes.

0 0

Post a comment