The Macmillan Science Library genetics



Editor in Chief

Richard Robinson [email protected]

Tucson, Arizona

Associate Editors

Ralph R. Meyer, University Distinguished Teaching Professor and Professor of

Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati David A. Micklos, Executive Director, DNA Learning Center, Cold Spring

Harbor Laboratories Margaret A. Pericak-Vance, James B. Duke Professor of Medicine, Director, Center for Human Genetics, Duke University Medical Center

Students from the following school participated as consultants:

Medford Area Middle School, Medford, Wisconsin Jeanine Staab, Teacher


Linda Hubbard, Editorial Director Kate Millson, Editor

?Ray Abruzzi, Mark Mikula, Nicole Watkins, Contributing Editors Matthew Nowinski, Angela Pilchak, Editorial Interns Marc Borbély, Nancy E. Gratton, Copyeditors fMarc Borbély, Amy L. Unterburger, Proofreaders

Ellen Davenport, Indexer

Michelle DiMercurio, Senior Art Director

Rita Wimberley, Senior Buyer

Shalice Shah-Caldwell, Permissions Associate

Robyn V. Young, Project Manager, Imaging and Multimedia Content Lezlie Light, Coordinator, Imaging and Multimedia Content Robert Duncan, Senior Imaging Specialist, Imaging and Multimedia Content Deanna Raso, Photo Researcher

Macmillan Reference USA

Frank Menchaca, Vice President and Publisher Hélène G. Potter, Director, New Product Development




Richard Robinson

© 2003 by Macmillan Reference USA. Macmillan Reference USA is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, The Gale Group, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. The Gale Group, Inc. accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions.

Volume ISBN Numbers 0-02-865607-5 (Volume 1) 0-02-865608-3 (Volume 2) 0-02-865609-1 (Volume 3) 0-02-865610-5 (Volume 4)


Genetics / Richard Robinson, editor in chief. p. ; cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-02-865606-7 (set : hd.) 1. Genetics—Encyclopedias. [DNLM: 1. Genetics—Encyclopedias—English. 2. Genetic Diseases, Inborn—Encyclopedias—English. 3. Genetic Techniques—Encyclopedias—English. 4. Molecular Biology—Encyclopedias—English. QH 427 G328 2003] I. Robinson, Richard, 1956-

QH427 .G46 2003 576'.03—dc21


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