Kennedy Disease

Kennedy disease is a neurological condition that is also due to a mutation of the androgen receptor gene. Affected individuals are phenotypically normal males who are fertile, although after puberty they may develop enlarged breasts, consistent with very mild androgen insensitivity. The disorder causes progressive weakness over several decades, along with tremor, difficulty swallowing, and some sensory problems. The mutation that causes Kennedy disease is an expanded "triplet repeat" of CAG nucleotides, making this condition one of the family of triplet repeat diseases that includes Huntington's disease. see also Apoptosis; Hormonal Regulation; Inheritance Patterns; Sex Determination; Sexual Orientation; Transcription Factors; Triplet Repeat Disease; X Chromosome; Y Chromosome.

Richard Robinson


Gilbert, Scott. Developmental Biology, 5th ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1997.

Internet Resources

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. < .htm>.

Statement of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Working Party on the Surgical Management of Children Born with Ambiguous Genitalia. <http://>.

Warne, Garry. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Victoria, Australia: Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Children's Hospital. <http://www>.

Aneuploidy See Chromosomal Aberrations

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a bacterium or other microorganism to survive and reproduce in the presence of antibiotic doses that were previously thought effective against them. Examples of microbe resistance to antibiotics dot the countryside, plaguing humankind. For instance, in February 1994 dozens of students at La Quinta High School in southern California were exposed to the pathogenic (disease-causing) agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and eleven were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Many strains of this bacterium are multi-drug resistant (MDR). As for the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhea, which causes gonorrhea, the antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline that were used against it in the 1980s can no longer be the first lines of defense, again because of antibiotic resistance. If only 2 percent of a N. gonorrhea population is antibiotic resistant, a community-wide infection of this persistent strain can occur.

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