Mitochondrion

Glucose breakdown begins in the cytosol, but the majority of the process occurs in the mitochondrion, the energy-harvesting organelle of the cell. In addition to participating in the breakdown of glucose (and making ATP in the process), the mitochondrion is also involved in breaking down fats and amino acids. All these fuels are processed in two major steps, termed the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. In the Krebs cycle, the carbon skeletons are broken apart to make CO2, while the hydrogen atoms are removed on special nucleotide carriers. In the electron transport chain, the hydrogens are stripped of their energy in a series of steps to make ATP, and in the end are reacted with oxygen to form water. The mitochondrion consumes virtually all the oxygen used by the cell. The mitochondrion also participates in many anabolic reactions, using the intermediates of the Krebs cycle as a source of carbon skeletons for creating and modifying nucleotides, amino acids, and other building blocks of the cell.

The nucleus of this liver cell, magnified nearly 3,000 times, has been stained to show some of its components: DNA (dark purple), nucleolus (burgundy). Mitochondria (red), and cytoplasm (pink), are visible outside the nucleus.

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