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prevent the inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4 and cyclin D/CDK6 complexes during Gx.

Decreased expression of p21 and p27, proteins that belong to the Cip/Kip family of CKIs, also has been demonstrated in numerous human tumors. In contrast to the genetic mutations observed with p16, the decrease in p27 levels in tumors is due to enhanced degradation of the p27 protein. One of the proteins required for the degradation of p27, Skp2, has oncogenic properties. Skp2 over expression is observed in several human cancers and likely contributes to the uncontrolled progression of the cell cycle by increasing the degradation of p27. Understanding of the fine details of cell cycle regulation is likely to lead to specific cancer therapies targeting one or more of these important proteins. see also Apop-tosis; Cancer; Cell, Eukaryotic; Meiosis; Mitosis; Oncogenes; Replication; Signal Transduction; Tumor Suppressor Genes; Transcription Factors.

Joanna Bloom and Michele Pagano


Goldberg, Alfred L., Stephen J. Elledge, and J. Wade Harper. "The Cellular Chamber of Doom." Scientific American 284, no. 1 (2001): 68-73.

Gutkind, J. Silvio, ed. Signaling Networks and Cell Cycle Control. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2000.

Murray, Andrew, and Tim Hunt. The Cell Cycle: An Introduction. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Pagano, Michele, ed. Cell Cycle Control. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

Weinberg, Robert A. "How Cancer Arises." Scientific American 275, no. 3 (1996): 62-70.

Cell, Eukaryotic domains of life, a type of cell without a nucleus

All living organisms are composed of cells. A eukaryotic cell is a cell with a nucleus, which contains the cell's chromosomes. Plants, animals, protists, and Archaea one of three fungi have eukaryotic cells, unlike the Eubacteria and Archaea, whose cells do not have nuclei and are therefore termed prokaryotic. In addition to having a nucleus, eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in being larger and much more structurally and functionally complex. Eukaryotic cells contain subcompartments called organelles, which carry out specialized reactions within their boundaries. A eukaryotic cell may be an individual organism, such as the amoeba, or a highly specialized part of a multicellular organism, neuron nerve cell such as a neuron.

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