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plasmids small rings of DNA found in many bacteria telomeres tips chromosome centromeres regions of the chromosome linking chromatids microtubules protein strands within the cell, parts of the cytoskele-ton

Bibliography

Berlyn, Mary K B., K Brooks Low, and Kenneth E. Rudd. "Linkage Map of Escherichia coli K-12." In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., Frederick C. Neidhardt, et al., eds. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 1996.

Ingraham, John L., and Catherine A. Ingraham. Introduction to Microbiology, 2nd ed. New York: Brooks/Cole, 2000.

Koonin, Eugene V. "How Many Genes Can Make a Cell: The Minimal-Gene-Set Concept." Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 1 (2000): 99-116.

Pettijohn, David E. "The Nucleoid." In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., Frederick C. Neidhardt et. al. eds. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 1996.

Internet Resource

Entrez-Genome. National Center for Biotechnology Information. <http://www.ncbi .nlm.nih.gov/Entrez/Genome/org.html>.

Chromosomes, Artificial

Artificial chromosomes are laboratory constructs that contain DNA sequences and that perform the critical functions of natural chromosomes. They are used to introduce and control new DNA in a cell, to study how chromosomes function, and to map genes in genomes.

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