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technology holds the most promise for the future of pharmaceutical production of proteins that cannot be made in bacteria.

In January 2001, the first cloned member of an endangered species was born. This was a gaur, a wild ox native to India and southeast Asia, which the researchers named Noah. The gaur was chosen by Advanced Cell Technology as a candidate for cloning after the company had successfully cloned domestic cattle, which are related to the gaur species.

The embryo from which Noah developed was created from the nuclei of frozen skin cells that had been taken from an adult male gaur that had died eight years earlier. Skin cell nuclei were fused with enucleated domestic cow eggs to produce forty embryos. One of these forty was carried to full term in a surrogate cow mother. Unfortunately, Noah died of an infection two days after his birth (the infection is thought to be unrelated to his origin as a cloned animal). Despite Noah's death, it is likely that cloning will eventually be used to aid the conservation of endangered species. In the future, scientists may attempt to clone a recently extinct species, should intact DNA for an extinct species be obtained.

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