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feasible. The first draft of the human genome was completed in 2001. With the complete sequence available, scientists will be able to "mine the genome" to find important gene products and to design specific drugs to target gene product. The twenty-first century will see tremendous new advances using biotechnology. see also Agricultural Biotechnology; Bioinformatics; Biotechnology; Biotechnology Entrepreneur; Cloning Genes; Cloning Organisms; Genetically Modified Foods; Genomics Industry; Human Genome Project; Mutagenesis; Patenting Genes; Plant Genetic Engineer; Restriction Enzymes; Sanger, Fred.

Ralph R. Meyer


Alcamo, I. Edward. DNA Technology: The Awesome Skill, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 2001.

Bud, Robert, and Mark F. Cantley. The Uses of Life: A History of Biotechnology. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Weaver, Robert F. Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Birth Defects

?A birth defect is an anomaly that is congenital, or present from birth. Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality, causing 22 percent of all infant deaths. Approximately 3 to 4 percent of all live births are affected by fa birth defect; the causes of most of them are unknown. Some birth defects are considered to be physical, while others are thought of as functional. Physical birth defects result in the malformation of a physical organ or limb, whereas functional birth defects are those that cause primarily functional, rather than physical, problems. Functional birth defects include mental retardation, congenital hearing loss, early-onset vision impairment, and numerous other health concerns. They may be caused by single gene mutations, or they may be due to polygenic or multifactorial inheritance.

Birth defects may be found in isolation or they may occur in combination in one child, as part of a larger syndrome. A syndrome is usually defined as the presence of three or more birth defects due to one underlying cause, that characterize a particular disease or condition. An example of this is Down syndrome.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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