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flies with cheapdate mutations are very sensitive to the affects of alcohol, and flies with amnesiac mutations are unable to learn.

The major conclusion from work in model systems is that the pathways and systems involved in addiction are central to normal behaviors with instinctive reward processes, such as feeding and procreation. Addiction is a process that involves learning and the subversion of these basic reward pathways. see also Complex Traits; Disease, Genetics of; Gene and Environment; Signal Transduction; Twins.

Kirk C. Wilhelmsen

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Begleiter, Henri, and Benjamin Kissan, eds. The Genetics of Alcoholism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Tamara J. Phillips, et al. "Alcohol Preference and Sensitivity Are Markedly Reduced in Mice Lacking Dopamine D2 Receptors." Nature Neuroscience 1 (1998): 610-615.

Theile, Todd, et al. "Ethanol Consumption and Resistance Are Inversely Related to Neuropeptide Y Levels." Nature 396 (1998): 366-369.

Aging and Life Span

Aging is, simply put, the act of getting older. Aging is part of the natural life cycle of an organism. From birth, through maturation, and eventually to death, aging is the element that ties all segments of life together.

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