Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) trigger transition between cell-cycle phases. Adapted from Robinson, 2001.

incapable of cell division even after maximal stimulation, and include most neurons, striated muscle cells, and heart muscle cells.

The cell cycle is functionally divided into discrete phases. During the DNA synthesis (S) phase, the cell replicates its chromosomes. During the mitosis (M) phase, the duplicated chromosomes are segregated, migrating to opposite poles of the cell. The cell then divides into two daughter cells, each having the same genetic components as the parental cell. Mammalian cells undergo two gap, or growth, phases (G: and G2). G: occurs prior to the S phase, and G2 occurs before the M phase.

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