systems that allowed researchers to work without the complexity and constraints involved with living organisms.

These heroic discoveries marked the beginning of the molecular biology revolution. From them even deeper questions have arisen, about how gene expression is regulated, how genes control development, and how (and whether) genes can be modified to treat disease and improve human life. see also Crick, Francis; DNA; Genetic Code; Nucleotide; Replication; Transcription; Watson, James.

Richard Robinson gene expression use of a gene to create the corresponding protein


Judson, Horace F. The Eighth Day of Creation, expanded edition. Plainview, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1996.

Olby, Robert C. The Path to the Double Helix. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1994.

Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Penguin, 1968.

DNA Vaccines

A DNA vaccine uses foreign DNA to express an encoded protein and stimulate the body's immune system. It represents a new way to immunize against infectious disease that is potentially less expensive than classic vaccination forms.

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