The Myth of the Perfect Clone

Cloned animals are not 100 percent identical to their "parents." Whenever nuclear transplantation is used to produce cloned organisms, the offspring display some differences from the organism that donated the nuclei. The egg donor contributes mitochondria, the energy producers of eukaryotic cells, and these mitochondria have their own small amount of DNA-containing genes used for energy metabolism. Since mitochondria are inherited only with egg cytoplasm, they will not match the mitochondria of the animal from which the nucleus was taken. In addition, maternally derived gene products, both mRNA (messenger RNA) and protein, which serve to tips

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begin embryonic development, will differ from that of the nuclear donor, as will the uterine environment and the external environment. Thus, for example, clones produced by nuclear transplantation will be significantly less identical than will clones produced by twinning. see also Cloning: Ethical Issues; Cloning Genes; Conservation Biology: Genetic Approaches; Hemophilia; Mitochondrial Genome; Reproductive Technology; Telomere; Transgenic Animals; Twins.

Elizabeth A. De Stasio

Bibliography

Gurdon, J. B., and Alan Colman. "The Future of Cloning." Nature 402 (1999): 743. Lanza, Robert P., Betsy L. Dresser, and Philip Damiani. "Cloning Noah's Ark." Scientific American (Nov., 2000): 84-89. Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning for Medicine." Scientific American (Dec., 1998): 58-63. Wilmut, Ian, Keith Campbell, and Colin Tudge. The Second Creation: Dolly and the Age of Biological Control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

College Professor n

Professors of genetics at colleges and universities teach, perform research, and handle administrative responsibilities. Professors may teach at the undergraduate or graduate levels, or both. Undergraduate teaching involves class lectures, small group seminars, and hands-on laboratory sessions. Professors evaluate students based on their performances on examinations, essays, and laboratory work, and may also work individually with students to advise them about their college careers or to mentor them in independent laboratory studies. Graduate teaching provides advanced instruction in the field of genetics, usually in smaller classes. Professors also act as mentors to graduate students, providing a supportive environment for conducting research.

Research is an integral component of professorship. Professors apply for grants to fund genetic experiments, perform original research, analyze the results, and submit their findings for publication. They must keep current with the published results of other scientists in the genetics field by reading journals and books, attending the conferences of professional societies, and interacting with other researchers. In addition, professors must fulfill administrative responsibilities, including participation on departmental and faculty committees that consider issues such as courses of study for students (curricula), budgets, hiring decisions, and allocating resources.

Most genetics professors at four-year universities hold a doctorate degree (Ph.D.) in a specialized area of genetics or molecular biology. Earning a Ph.D. first requires completion of an undergraduate bachelor's degree. The student must then complete graduate school, typically consisting of about three years of advanced coursework and two to three years of original, independent laboratory research. The results of this research are written up in an extensive report, called a dissertation.

The career path of a college professor can be described as a rise through four levels: instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and full professor. Instructors are either completing or have already earned their Ph.D., and are beginning their teaching careers. They usually spend about nine to twelve hours a week teaching. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, published

Genetics professors are often specialists in a specific area of molecular biology or genetics and are expected to juggle the roles of educator and researcher. Here, a biology lecture is given by a professor at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia.

Genetics professors are often specialists in a specific area of molecular biology or genetics and are expected to juggle the roles of educator and researcher. Here, a biology lecture is given by a professor at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia.

by the U.S. Department of Labor, lists the average instructor's salary as $33,400. After instructors have taught for several years, their teaching, research, and publications are reviewed by their academic institution. If found satisfactory, they are eligible for promotion to the position of assistant professor. Assistant professors also teach nine to twelve hours weekly, but are more likely to lecture in large undergraduate courses. They are expected to conduct research projects and publish their work. Assistant professors earn approximately $43,800.

With continuing success in research and teaching responsibilities, a professor can obtain the position of associate professor. These faculty members spend fewer hours on undergraduate teaching (about six to nine hours a week), and are likely to lead graduate classes and advise graduate students on their dissertation projects. They can expect to make about $53,200 yearly. Promotion to full professorship is based on the quality of one's research and reputation with the field. Teaching is less emphasized, usually occupying only three to six hours per week. Professors take an active role in the research projects and dissertations of doctoral candidates. Further advancement opportunities include positions in administration such as department chair, dean of students, or college president.

College professors may work at public or private institutions. They generally teach for nine months of the year, allowing them to work in other environments as well. Instructors may teach additional classes, act as consultants to private, governmental, or nonprofit organizations, or author publications in their field of expertise. The ability to make one's own schedule, conduct original research, teach and mentor students, take paid leaves of absence, and have access to campus facilities makes professorship an attractive and competitive choice for motivated individuals. see also Educator; Geneticist.

Regina M. Carney

Bibliography

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook: 2000-2001 Edition. Bulletin 2520. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Wright, John W., and Edward J. Dwyer. The American Almanac of Jobs and Salaries. New York: Avon Books, 1990.

malignancy cancerous tissue

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, occurring in approximately 5 percent of the population and resulting in roughly 55,000 deaths annually. New cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in approximately 90 per 100,000 people annually. The majority of cases occur in individuals older than age fifty. Of those who suffer from colorectal malignancy, an estimated 40 percent will die from the disease.

Colon cancer-related health-care costs, consisting of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, hospice and home health care, medications, and physician services, exceed $5 billion per year. This figure does not include the indirect costs of wages lost and reduced productivity.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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