$ 0.5 - 1.0 .Billion, 2+

< $0.5 Billion, 1+

Each product score is 0 to 105; How is each product in portfolio ranked?

Fig. 2.40. PPM Analysis: Criteria Scores for Pipeline (Copyright © 1998 by R.G. Cooper, S.J. Edgett and E.J. Kleinschmidt, reprinted by permission of Perseus Books PLC, a member of Perseus Books, L.L.C.)

A structured and ideal planning cycle exists for project management (PM), involving eight steps or phases in chronological order: conceptualize, design, plan, allocate, execute, deliver, review, and support in the model from Kennedy (Fig. 2.41). As you can observe, a full cycle of activities is incorporated sequentially and then returned to the origins of the project (concepts and plans) to reinvigorate the process and improve them and their outcomes. Also, it should be noted that "support" is the final phase of PM, suggesting to the team members that the bottom line for project management is to help (support) the team plan and achieve its outcomes. The project planner does not do all the planning, or execute the work, or deliver the outcomes, but assists the team to make sure that all the steps are followed through by the

Execute^^^^ Allocate

Fig. 2.41. Project Management, The Planning Cycle

Execute^^^^ Allocate

Fig. 2.41. Project Management, The Planning Cycle participants to improve the outcomes. A common complaint about PM is that it may appear initially to take added work and time of individual departments and team members away from their specific duties. A PM manager needs to demonstrate the value of PM, which includes some training of all team members for PM and especially the team leaders. Corporate commitment to PM is another leadership requirement of senior management in order to achieve the efficiency opportunities [41].

Project planners can use a variety of tools to identify, track, and coordinate progress on all the different projects for a product's development in R&D. Pictorial or graphic representation of such project data assists department managers, team members, and team leaders, and senior management understand the scope of work being done, time frames for the work, deadlines for any one area and the collective process, and how one area's work may fit into the bigger development picture in work flow, sequence, and goal achievement. A typical graph is a Gantt-like chart that lists all the key projects over time, showing their start times and projected completion dates and current status (Fig. 2.42). Such project presentation allows a team to identify what all is being done by whom and its timeliness. Any delays can be noted, readily identified, and discussed at team or ad hoc meetings, with formulation of a resolution to the issues. PPM can use these Gantt-like charts as well collectively for all the products and identify areas of the company where consistent problems may occur in getting work done on time. Then PPM can help that department manager identify the specific problems and add resources or

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