Precise

Fig. 2.11. Performance - the Paradigm (P 8th Power)

Persuasive

Fig. 2.11. Performance - the Paradigm (P 8th Power)

integrated. A person needs to be prepared in education and motivation to perform the work, precise in their work given its scientific nature and impact on diseases and patients, prudent in their decisions, partnering with others in a department, on teams, and with outside experts to be successful, persuasive at times to convince others to use the best ideas and follow their lead, persevering through all the challenges and time required in research and working with projects and other people, pioneering in their idea generation without losing focus of the routine job at hand to be done, and finally productive to get the all the work done in the right way at the right time with the right people and following the right plan, to achieve the right result.

The first five parameters of the R&D paradigm through an effective sixth parameter, performance, result in the final two Ps, product approvals and a portfolio of products. The product approvals and the portfolio are the ultimate goals to determine organizational effectiveness of R&D, but they must incorporate the operational elements described above regarding the people, processes, profits, principles of leaders, pipeline of science, and performance behaviors of individuals, in order to be considered successful in the minds of all the stakeholders, that is, staff and leadership of the company, patients, providers, public, and stockholders. Figure 2.12 presents the eight stages of product evolution at a company (from a target, hits to leads to candidates to product approvals to new indications and label extentions, and then to new molecules and new formulations); of course, product approvals are the ultimate products of R&D. For the portfolio of products, eight different factors could be used to categorize the products and organize the business, based on the corporate strategies, science issues, health care structures, and business organizations: general medicine versus specialty practice, disease areas, therapeutic areas, pharmacology groups,

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