Clinical Sources of Effusions

The posterior pararenal space is a common site of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage in conditions such as a bleeding diathesis or overanticoagulation. Hemorrhage from ruptured abdominal aneurysms also may typically localize within this compartment. Trauma (including stab wounds and rib fractures) and retroperito-neal lymphatic extravasation are other sources of effusions.

Infection limited solely to this compartment is rare. The posterior pararenal space itself does not include organs from which infection can arise directly. Except for the unusual case caused by bacteremia, infection here may develop as a complication of osteomyelitis of the vertebral column or 12th rib or of an aortic graft. Abscess behind the transversalis fascia is not, strictly speaking, extraperitoneal, but retrofascial abscess (largely of osseous origin from infection in the spine or 12th rib, often from tuberculosis or actinomycosis) occasionally may transgress fascial planes to involve the posterior par-arenal space. Fulminating perirenal infection rarely does this.

Extravasates originating in the pelvis, as in perforation of the rectum or sigmoid colon, may spread upward into this compartment.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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