Perineural Invasion

Perineural invasion is common in pancreatic ductal ad-enocarcinoma. However, the diagnosis is made on his-tologic examination and rarely by imaging studies because of the inability to define nerves around the pancreas. There are no objective criteria to define peri-neural invasion by imaging studies. It is also possible that perivascular invasion along the arteries around the pancreas is, in fact, perineural invasion because most of the peripancreatic nerves accompany the peripancreatic vessels (Figs. 12-5 and 12-7).

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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