T Staging

In the diagnosis and staging of esophageal cancer, CT is highly accurate for detecting distant metastases, especially to the liver, and for determining advanced local spread involving vital mediastinal structures. It cannot, however, distinguish tumors that invade only the mucosa or submucosa (T1) from tumors that invade the muscularis propria (T2). Consequently, CT is much more reliable for classifying stage III and stage IV lesions than stage I and stage II lesions. In contrast, EUS is very accurate for diagnosing stage I and stage II lesions, often good for stage III lesions, and of limited accuracy for stage IV lesions.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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