The relationships of the left kidney to the bowel are most intimate to the distal transverse and proximal descending colon. Figure 9-3 illustrates these relationships and the complex peritoneal reflections in the left flank. The reflections of the transverse mesocolon cross the left kidney anteriorly along a narrow "bare area" at thejunc-tion of its middle and lower thirds to continue with the peritoneal reflections over the descending colon. At the junction of the transverse and the descending colon, the peritoneum reflects from the anatomic splenic flexure to form the phrenicocolic ligament that inserts on the left diaphragm at the level of the 10th and 11th ribs. The distal transverse colon is related to the anterior surface of the lower half of the left kidney, although at variable distances, depending upon the length of the transverse mesocolon. The lower pole is fully inframe-socolic. The extraperitoneal descending colon passes
downward along the lateral border of the left kidney, turning somewhat medially toward the lower border of the psoas muscle at the lower pole. Other peritoneal reflections account for the splenorenal ligament, within which the tail of the pancreas inserts and the splenic vessels course. More anterior to the medial surface of the left kidney lie the greater curvature of the stomach, and inferiorly, the duodenojejunal junction and jejunal loops. Figure 9-4 clarifies these relationships in a para-sagittal dimension.
Fig. 9—4. Left parasagittal drawing showing anatomic relationships of the left kidney.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.