Appendix Antique Illustrations of Echinoderms in Japan

We can go back to an encyclopedia, Wakansansaizue, edited by the physician Ryoan Terashima in 1712, to the scholarly description and illustration of the echinoderm. A sea urchin, a supposed starfish, a sand dollar and a sea cucumber were described and illustrated (Figs. 4-6). The encyclopedia is composed of 105 volumes. It was edited on the basis of an antique idea that human diseases were generated by three components: the heavens, earth (including animals and plants) and humans. Wakansansaizue literally means Japanese-Chinese encyclopedia on the three components.

In 1762,Yoritaka Matsudaira completed a series of picture books on natural history entitled Shurinshukan in order to enhance the local activity of fishery and related industries. Four of them, called Shurinzu and dealing with fishes, are highly valued for the quality of their drawings. Even echinoderms, sea cucumbers, starfish and brittle stars are illustrated in the third issue of Shur-inzu (Figs. 7 and 8).

Senchufu (1811) by Tanshu Kurimoto (1756-1834) describes 27 species of echinoderms. This number seems incorrect because some species appeared

Fig. 5. Illustration and description of starfish and sand dollar in Wakansan-saizue (from the reprint published in 1902 by Chugai Shuppan, Tokyo). The author classified these two animals into different animal groups, although a famous Chinese scholar, Li Shizhen (1518-1594), described them as belonging to the same category in his pharmaceutical book Bencaogangmu.A starfish, named Takono-makura, is a blue-grey animal with five podia. A sand dollar, called Mochikai, has a thin circular body, on which a penta-radiated pattern is seen. A starfish is assumed Asteropecten sp. judging from the explanation given. An animal called Takonomakura is today Clypeaster japonicus

Fig. 6. Description of sea urchin in Wakansan-saizue (from the reprint published in 1902 by Chugai Shuppan, Tokyo). The body is round and similar to a bur. The animal moves its spines in response to contact stimuli. Localities of sea urchin production and quality of sea urchin roes were explained. The description of the animal in the text suggests that the species is Anthoci-daris crassispina

Fig. 7. Sea cucumber in Shurinzu drawn by Bun-ryu Miki (1762) (from a publication of the Kagawa History Museum, 2003). The animal appears to be Apostichopus japonicus. Original drawing is in color

Fig. 8. Starfish and brittle star in Shurinzu (from a publication of the Kagawa History Museum, 2003). The starfish is recognized as Asterina pectinifera. Original in color

Fig. 9. Description of Heterocentrotus mamillatus in Senchufu (1811) (from the reprint published by Kowa Shuppan, 1982). It was described that this species occurred in southern Japan

Fig. 10. Illustration of Gorgonocephalus eucnemus from Senchufu (1811) (from the reprint published by Kowa Shuppan, 1982). This animal was cited as a peculiar species of starfish. It was written that powdered Gorgonocephalus was used as a medication for bruising. The animal was reported to have fundamentally five large tentacles separating into a large number of small tentacles.A penta-radiated pattern like a cherry blossom was described in the center of the body. The animal is illustrated on two facing pages

Fig. 10. Illustration of Gorgonocephalus eucnemus from Senchufu (1811) (from the reprint published by Kowa Shuppan, 1982). This animal was cited as a peculiar species of starfish. It was written that powdered Gorgonocephalus was used as a medication for bruising. The animal was reported to have fundamentally five large tentacles separating into a large number of small tentacles.A penta-radiated pattern like a cherry blossom was described in the center of the body. The animal is illustrated on two facing pages two or more times in the different sections and the identification of species was unclear. Stichopus japonicus, Asteropecten, Diadema setosum, Asterina pectinifera, Strongylocentrotus intermedius, Heterocentrotus mamillatus, Astriclypeus manni, Asterias amurensis, Gorgonocephalus eucnemus,etc. were illustrated (Figs. 9 and 10). The original book of Senchufu was lost due to fire and only some reproductions remain.

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