Echo Mv Area By Pressure Half Time

Severe Mitral Stenosis

Apical four-chamber views of severe longstanding mitral stenosis in a 44-yr-old Vietnamese female. A Note marked thickening and calcification of mitral valve leaflets arrows and subvalvular apparatus accompanied by marked distortion in left heart chamber architecture. B This patient had severe pulmonary hypertension with grossly dilated right heart chambers and severe tricuspid regurgitation arrow . Fig. 5. Measurement of pressure gradients in mitral stenosis. Tracing the...

Segment Left Ventricle Model ASE

Aha Segment Model

Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Fig. 10. The American Society of Echocardiography ASE issued a 16-segment left ventricle model for wall motion assessment. The American Heart Association's AHA 17-segment model has an additional apical segment cap added to harmonize left ventricular segment nomenclature with nuclear cardiology and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A A 16-segment model of left ventricular segments ASE . B A 17-segment model of...

Echo Pulmonary Vein Doppler

Pulmonary Venous Doppler Young

Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography applications for the study of diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardio 1998 32 865-875. Unless atrial mechanical failure present. AR, pulmonary venous peak atrial contraction reversal velocity EDT, early left ventricular filling deceleration time IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time S D, systolic-to-diastolic pulmonary venous flow ratio. Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography...

Isovolumic Relaxation Time Echo

Echocardiogram Pictures Explained

Pulmonary venous flow normal vs dysfunction. Doppler patterns of pulmonary venous flow. Abnormal pulmonary venous flow is characterized by blunting of the systolic wave and increased atrial reversal velocity and or duration. S, systolic flow D, diastolic flow A, atrial reversal. Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for explanation . Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for...

Mitral Valve Prolapse Overdiagnosis

Echocardiographic Valvular Thickening

During diastole, the myxomatous leaflets can be measured. Thickened leaflets more than 5 mm support the diagnosis of classic MVP. Please see companion DVD for corresponding video. Fig. 6. Bileaflet prolapse is easily visualized in the apical four-chamber A4C view. However, the mitral valve profile is normally exaggerated in this view and may lead to overdiagnosis of mitral valve prolapse left panel . Severe mitral regurgitation was present right panel . Please see companion DVD for...

Echocardiography Evaluation of Aortic Regurgitation

Aortic Valve Leaflets Echocardiography

Reimold, MD Echocardiography Assessment in Patients With Aortic Regurgitation Assessment of Aortic Valve Morphology Anatomy of Aortic Valve Echocardiographic Evaluation of Aortic Valve Morphology Impact of Aortic Regurgitation on the Left Ventricle Doppler Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Patient With Aortic Regurgitation Quantitative Measures of Aortic Regurgitation Suggested Reading Aortic regurgitation occurs when a fraction of the blood ejected from the...

Tumors Involving The Heart And Pericardium

Ridge Left Atrium

Primary tumors arising in the heart are rare, and only 25 of these are malignant. Ninety percent or more are Fig. 11. These images show a floppy myxomatous anterior mitral valve leaflet that prolapsed into the left atrium during systole, which can create a tumor-like appearance. Marked mitral regurgitation was present. Fig. 11. These images show a floppy myxomatous anterior mitral valve leaflet that prolapsed into the left atrium during systole, which can create a tumor-like appearance. Marked...

Tissue Doppler Imaging High Output Heart Failure

Myocardial Performance Index Finding

BSA, body suface area PLAX, parasternal long-axis LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole LVIDs, left ventricular internal diameter at end systole PSAX, parasternal short-axis A4C, apical four chamber. M-mode or 2D, essentially subtract ventricular cavity volume from the total ventricular volume to obtain the shell or myocardial volume Fig. 15 . This value Fig. 13. Geometric models to estimate left ventricle LV volumes by two-dimensional echocardiography use short-axis area...

Aortic Insufficiency In Plax Color Flow

Polycyctic Kidney Disease Aortic

Parasternal long-axis PLAX view showing aortic root dissection flap that prolapses into the left ventricular outflow tract during diastole. It was accompanied by new onset aortic regurgitation. Please see companion DVD for corresponding video. Fig. 1. Parasternal long-axis PLAX view showing aortic root dissection flap that prolapses into the left ventricular outflow tract during diastole. It was accompanied by new onset aortic regurgitation. Please see companion DVD for corresponding...

Echocardiography Images

Hockey Stick Mitral

Echocardiographic features of rheumatic mitral stenosis. A Diastolic doming of the thickened anterior mitral valve leaflet hockey stick appearance, curved arrow is indicative of restricted anterior leaflet motion. Note the thickened subvalvular structures, including the chordae arrow . Note also the posterior pericardial effusion PE . B A systolic frame showing thickened mitral valve leaflets. C Commissural fusion arrowheads and bilateral leaflet thickening curved arrows resulting in...

Adult Congenital Heart Disease In General Echocardiography Practice

Tga Echocardiography View

The spectrum of adult congenital heart defects seen in echocardiography practice varies according to institutional practice and expertise. Half a century ago, survival with severe congenital heart disease was less common. Today, nearly 80 of such patients in industrialized societies now survive into adulthood. Most are followed up in centers that specialize in adult congenital heart diseases (CHDs), but it is not uncommon for such adults to be seen in general echocardiography practice. Most...

Septal Knuckle Hypertrophy Causing Lvot Obstruction

Valsalva Lvot

No clear etiological relationship to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the prominent septal knuckle found in DUST may cause dynamic outflow tract obstruction Fig. 24 . Mitral Regurgitation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy A posteriorly directed jet of mitral regurgitation typically accompanies SAM of the mitral valve for reasons explained previously Figs. 18 and 19 . It temporally follows the onset of LVOT obstruction and care should be taken not to confuse its Doppler velocity profile...

Echo M-mode With Pathologic Findings

Cardiac Effusion Ray

Dilated cardiomyopathy Mitral regurgitation. Mitral annular dilatation, lateral papillary muscle displacement, and apical tethering prevent normal leaflet coaptation. The result is typically mitral regurgitation MR with a centrally directed jet. Worsening MR heralds a worse prognosis. Color M-mode Doppler across the mitral valve apical four-chamber view during diastole provides a spatio-temporal display of blood velocities across the vertical interrogation line. This parameter may be...

Echocardiography Foreshortening

Foreshorten Apex

Two-dimensional-guided M-mode measurements and derived indices. M-mode is simple, reproducible, and accurate when ventricular geometry is normal. It provides good endocardial resolution. The ejection fraction EF, Teich is an automated calculation based on the Teichholz method see Table 4 . Fig. 3. Two-dimensional-guided M-mode measurements and derived indices. M-mode is simple, reproducible, and accurate when ventricular geometry is normal. It provides good endocardial resolution. The...