Isovolumic Relaxation Time Echo

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Fig. 9. Pulmonary venous flow: normal vs dysfunction. Doppler patterns of pulmonary venous flow. Abnormal pulmonary venous flow is characterized by blunting of the systolic wave and increased atrial reversal velocity and/or duration. S, systolic flow; D, diastolic flow; A, atrial reversal.

Echocardiogram Pictures Explained
Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow (see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for explanation).
Echocardiogram Pictures Explained
Fig. 11. Recording isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) (see Technical Issues in Recording IVRT section for explanation).
Echocardiogram Pictures Explained
Fig. 12. Doppler tissue imaging technique (see Technical Issues in Performing Doppler Tissue Imaging section for explanation). (Please see companion DVD for corresponding video.)

in a manner complementary to evaluation of mitral The sample volume is typically placed in the ventricular inflow and PV flow patterns (Table 3). myocardium immediately adjacent to the mitral annulus Spectral waveforms from pulse wave tissue Doppler to minimize contamination from the translational and are used to measure peak myocardial velocities. The rotational motion of the heart and to maximize the apical views allow the most favorable alignment of the longitudinal excursion of the annulus as it descends transducer beam to the longitudinal motion of the heart. toward the apex in systole and ascends away from the

Diastolic Function

Impaired Relaxation

Moderate Dysfunction

PseudoNormal

Severe Dysfunction

Restrictive Pattern

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