Secundum

Secundum ASDs are one of the most frequently encountered congenital cardiac defects in clinical practice

Echocardiography

Fig. 4. Agitated saline contrast echocardiography in this 28-yr-old female who complained of migraine headaches shows good opacification of right heart chambers. Clear evidence of right-to-left shunting (appearance of saline bubbles into left heart chambers) occurred early during rest. She was diagnosed with a secundum atrial septal defect. (Please see companion DVD for corresponding video.)

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