Fig. 4. Endocarditis of aortic valve leaflets showing vegetations. Endocarditis may lead to leaflet destruction as seen in this view. (Please see companion DVD for corresponding video.)

imaging in multiple views. Color flow Doppler in the parasternal long axis view provides an estimate of the size of the regurgitant orifice (Fig. 8). The color jet diameter (or width) is measured in diastole immediately below (within

1 cm) the aortic valve. In patients with aortic regurgitation because of trileaflet aortic valves this jet width is proportional to the size of the aortic valve defect. If the orifice is irregular, as in bicuspid aortic valve disease, the color jet

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