An abrasion is the damage inflicted on the superficial layers of the skin (epidermis) by friction or pressure. An abrasion may be sustained by sliding on a rough carpet, producing what is commonly called a rug burn. A much more extreme version of an abrasion is the injury produced when a pedestrian is knocked to the pavement by an automobile, sustaining extensive friction injuries to the skin on various parts of the body. These injuries are commonly called road burn or road rash. While abrasions may be lacking in specific detail to allow an instrument of causation to be identified, some abrasion patterns may be very specific. These may include the abrasions resulting from a rope used as a ligature around the neck or extremities and rubbed against the skin, called ligature marks. Abrasions can also be caused by the irregular surface of the shoe sole or by an electrical cord used as a whip ( Fig. 257-1 ).

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Dealing With Back Pain

Dealing With Back Pain

Deal With Your Pain, Lead A Wonderful Life An Live Like A 'Normal' Person. Before I really start telling you anything about me or finding out anything about you, I want you to know that I sympathize with you. Not only is it one of the most painful experiences to have backpain. Not only is it the number one excuse for employees not coming into work. But perhaps just as significantly, it is something that I suffered from for years.

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