Active countermeasures require the conscious cooperation of the individual. Examples include manual safety belts, motorcycle helmets, and child safety seats. Passive countermeasures, on the other hand, require little or no cooperation. Examples include air bags, automatic sprinkler systems, and spring-loaded kill switches on lawn mowers. In general, the less a countermeasure relies on user initiative, the more likely it will provide protection when needed. When used, manual safety belts reduce the risk of death in a car crash by 45 to 55 percent. However, they are effective only when buckled by the user. In contrast, air bags deploy in serious crashes virtually 100 percent of the time.
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