Opioids are the most common analgesics used in CS. Classes of opioid analgesics include opium (morphine and codeine) and phenylpiperidine (meperidine, fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfentanil) derivatives. The analgesic activity of a drug is traditionally referenced to morphine ( Iable 33:5). Following systemic administration, morphine analgesia is mediated through supraspinal p receptors (possibly by activating descending inhibitory pathways to the dorsal horn cells, and possibly by activating more rostral mechanisms in the brainstem). Spinal cord analgesia is mediated by p 2 receptors. All opioids have analgesic, sedative, and antitussive effects; they do not reliably produce amnesia when given in doses commonly used for CS. Opioids may also produce muscle rigidity, pruritis, nausea, vomiting, and constipation, and impair ventilation. Respiratory depression is potentiated in the presence of other CNS depressants.

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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