Anaphylaxis And Acute Allergic Reactions

Shaheed I. Koury Lee U. Herfel

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology Clinical..Featu.res

Diagnosis Treatment

Emergency, Treatment

Disposition

Admission

OutpatjentCare Urticaria, andAngioedema Other Common Allergic Problems FoodAllergy

Insect,, StingAllergy Drug.Aliergy

Chapter,, References

Anaphylaxis, a term used inconsistently in the literature, is a severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by either hypotension or airway compromise that is potentially life threatening in nature and that is caused by chemical and IgE mediators released from mast cells. Anaphylactoid was coined to describe responses clinically identical to anaphylaxis that were found to be non-IgE mediated and that did not require a sensitizing exposure. 1 Recent work has shown that the final pathway in "classic" anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions is identical, and anaphylaxis is now used to refer to both IgE and non-IgE reactions.2 Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated immune system response to presented antigens. Anaphylaxis lies at one end of a gradient of hypersensitivity reactions, and it is important to keep in mind that even apparently mild allergic reactions may progress to severe anaphylaxis.

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