The hip is a ball-and-socket joint made up of the acetabulum and the femur. The hip includes the acetabulum and the proximal femur two to three inches below the lesser trochanter. The functions of the hip are weight-bearing and movement. The fibrous capsule that surrounds the joint on all sides is exceedingly strong. It attaches around the acetabulum proximally and runs to the intertrochanteric line distally on the anterior surface. Posteriorly, it falls short of the intertrochanteric crest and inserts on the neck of the femur. It is weakest posteriorly.
The blood supply of the femoral head is derived from nutrient branches of the obturator, medial femoral circumflex, lateral femoral circumflex, and superior and inferior gluteal arteries. These course beneath the reflection of the capsule on the neck of the femur and also along the ligamentum teres. The capsular vessels are much more important than those of the ligamentum teres.
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