Richard F. Clark
HymenopteraJWasps, Bees, and.Ants) Bees and ..WaspsiApidae.. and. Vespidae)
Loxosceiei and. .Necrotic.. .Ara.chnid.ism
Hobo. .Spider .TegenariaaMrestis
Scabies(Sarcoptes^scabie) Ticks. J/xodesiiiDermacentofiand ..Others) Chiggers.. iTrombiculidae) Scorpions. .(Scorpionidae)
Mosquitos,. Flies, .F.leas,..and.Lice...(Diptera) Mosquitoes Flies
Lice . (Anoplura)
Kissing Bugs and Bed Bugs (Hemiptera) Caterpillars and Moths (Lepidoptera) Blister Beetles (Coleoptera) Chapter. References
The phylum Arthropoda is the largest division of the animal kingdom. The American Association of Poison Control Centers reported 79,378 cases of exposures to arthropods in 1997.1 Just over 100 of these were listed as resulting in major or severe reactions, including severe pain, neurotoxicity, or other signs and symptoms. Only two fatalities were listed from contact with arthropods—both from Hymenoptera stings. Clearly, these number are the tip of the iceberg. Toxic reactions to multiple stings by members of the order of Hymenoptera and severe systemic allergic reactions to one or more stings or bites of other insects such as deerflies, blackflies, horseflies, and kissing bugs can all present as emergency, life-threatening situations ( T.a,b.l.e 1...8.8.-..1..). Other arthropod envenomations merit review either for causing various organ system toxicities or as infectious disease vectors. This chapter will review the most common arthropod envenomations encountered by emergency physicians in the United States.
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