The self-inflating bag-valve mask system is most commonly used for ventilation. Ventilation bags used for infants and children should have a minimum volume of 450 mL. There is a common misconception that children are more susceptible to pneumothoraces at high inspiratory pressures. In fact, pediatric lung compliance is very good, and children can tolerate relatively high pressures. Pneumothoraces more commonly result from the administration of excessive tidal volume. The tidal volume necessary to ventilate children is the same as that for adults: 10 to 15 mL/kg. Since it is impractical to calculate the tidal volume in emergency situations, start ventilating with the smallest volume that causes adequate chest rise. Careful monitoring of the rate of ventilation is crucial to avoid excessive hyperventilation, a very common mistake.
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