Benign breast disease is traditionally considered to be due to hormonal influence. Prolonged hormonal imbalance leads to proliferation of breast tissue, leading to edema and discomfort. The clinical characteristics of benign breast disease include mastalgia or cyclic breast pain, isolated unilateral or bilateral breast lumps (either cysts or fibroadenomas), bilateral nodularities in the perimenstrual period, fibrocystic disease, and nipple discharge, as discussed above. 7 The patient should be referred to a breast specialist for confirmation of this diagnosis.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.