Mark P. Hamlin Peter J. Pronovost
GasPressyres Diffusion,, ofGases
Gas,, Diffusion, , ThroUngh, , the, ,Respirat,orY,,Memh,r,a,n,e
Rate„at,Which„Alveolar,Air, Is „Renewed,, „by,, Atmospheric ,,Air OxygenConcentration, ,,a,n,d,,,,P,artj,al,,P,re,S,S,ure,, ,i,n,,the„ Alveoli Carbon, „Dioxide „Concentration,, ,in,,the, Alveoli Alveolar Gas Equation End-JidalGases Arteria.lBloo.d,, Gases
Partial „Pressure„o.f„Arteiia„l, „Carbon, „Dioxide Partial Pressure of Arterial Oxyqen
Alveolar-Arterial „Oxyqen „Differences OxyMmoqloMtSMuratiofl Other,nMethods„of EvaluatiM oxxqenation PhysioloqicShuntinq, „inthe „Lunq, (Venous-ArtMaLAdMxture)
Oth.e.rMe.thods,,, of„Eya.lua.tinq„Blood„, Gases Pu.lmonary,,Artery,,Ca.th.ete.rs
CljniGal,,,Ap.proach,to „the, „Ventilator ,,and,,,Respiratory,,Failure Oxyqenation
Human lungs serve two distinct functions: ventilation and oxygenation. Ventilation, which determines the clearance of carbon dioxide from the body, is a function of the rate and depth of breathing. Oxygenation is the diffusion of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream for subsequent delivery to the tissues. The separation between oxygenation and ventilation is dramatically demonstrated by the apnea test for determining brain death. During this test, 100% oxygen is insufflated via a thin catheter placed near the carina in an apneic, unventilated patient. The peripheral oxygen saturation is 90 to 100% despite no clearance of carbon dioxide with severe acidosis. This dramatic example clearly distinguishes the two functions.
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