Bruise Ecchymosis

An external bruise represents bleeding beneath the skin. If sufficient bleeding occurs to create a lump, this is called a hematoma. Such injuries result from direct force applied to the skin surface, resulting in the tearing of subcutaneous blood vessels. The pattern of bleeding may be circular, surrounding a central bleeding point where the blow has stretched and torn a blood vessel wall. When multiple blood vessels are torn because of the use of a specific instrument, the bleeding pattern may conform to the outline of that instrument. For example, a blow inflicted with a human fist can produce multiple circular bruises in a pattern that conforms to the tips of the knuckles (.F..ig,.,2.57..:.2.). Similarly, pressure from fingertips such as occurs when someone grabs another by the arm may produce around of circular oval bruises. In contrast, a strike with a police baton can produce parallel linear bruises conforming to the diameter of the baton ( Fig 2.5.7:3.).

FIG. 257-2. Bruise pattern from knuckles.
FIG. 257-3. Parallel linear bruises from police baton.
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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