Chapter References

1. de Dombal FT: The OMGE acute abdominal pain survey progress report, 1986. Scand J Gastroenterol 23(suppl 144):35, 1988.

2. American College of Emergency Physicians' Clinical Policies Committee: Clinical policy for the initial approach to patients presenting with a chief complaint of nontraumatic acute abdominal pain. Ann Emerg Med 23:906, 1994.

3. Agreus L, Svardsudd K, Nyren O, Tibblin G: The epidemiology of abdominal symptoms: Prevalence and demographic characteristics in a Swedish adult population. A report from The Abdominal Symptom Study. Scan J Gastroenterol 29:102, 1994.

4. McCaig LF, Stussman BJ: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1996 Emergency Department Summary. Advance data from vital and health statistics; no. 293, p 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1997.

5. Bugliosi TF, Meloy TD, Vukov LF: Acute abdominal pain in the elderly. Ann Emerg Med 19:1383, 1990.

6. Staniland JR, Ditchburn J, de Dombal FT: Clinical presentation of the acute abdomen: Study of 600 patients. Br Med J 3:393, 1972.

7. Jeddy TA, Vowles RH, Southam JA: Cough sign: A reliable test in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal inflammation. Br J Surg 81:279, 1994.

8. Bennett DH, Tambeur Luc J, Campbell WB: Use of coughing test to diagnose peritonitis. Br Med J 308:1336, 1994.

9. Liddington MI, Thomson WH: Rebound tenderness test. Br J Surg 78:795, 1991.

10. Dixon JM, Elton RA, Rainey JB, MacLeod DA: Rectal examination in patients with pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Br Med J 302:386, 1991.

11. Lukens TW, Emerman C, Effron D: The natural history and clinical findings of undifferentiated abdominal pain. Ann Emerg Med 22:690, 1993.

12. Thompson MM, Underwood MJ, Dookeran KA, et al: Role of sequential leucocyte counts and C-reactive protein measurements in acute appendicitis. Br J Surg 79:822, 1992.

13. Anyanwu AC, Moalypour SM: Are abdominal radiographs still overutilized in the assessment of acute abdominal pain? A district general hospital audit. J R Coll Surg Edinb 43:267, 1998.

14. Chang-Chien CS, Lin HH, Yen CL, et al: Sonographic demonstration of free air in perforated peptic ulcers: Comparison of sonography with radiography. J Clin Ultrasound 17:95, 1989.

15. Simmen HP, Decurtins M, Rotzer A, et al: Emergency room patients with abdominal pain unrelated to trauma: Analysis in a surgical university hospital. Hepatogastroenterology 38:279, 1991.

16. de Dombal FT: Acute abdominal pain in the elderly. J Clin Gastroenterol 19:331, 1994.

17. Gallagher EJ: Clinical utility of likelihood ratios. Ann Emerg Med 31:391, 1998.

18. McColl I: More precision in diagnosing appendicitis. N Engl J Med 338:190, 1998.

19. Wagner JM, McKinney P, Carpenter JL: Does this patient have appendicitis? JAMA 276:1589, 1996.

20. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Novelline RA, et al: Helical CT combined with contrast material administered only through the colon for imaging of suspected appendicitis. AJR 169:1275, 1997.

21. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Novelline RA, et al: Effect of computed tomography of the appendix on treatment of patients and use of hospital resources. N Engl J Med 338:141, 1998.

22. Parker LJ, Vukov LF, Wollan PC: Emergency department evaluation of geriatric patients with acute cholecystitis. Acad Emerg Med 4:51, 1997.

23. Singer AJ, McCracken G, Henry MC, et al: Correlation among clinical, laboratory, and hepatobiliary scanning findings in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Ann Emerg Med 28:267, 1996.

24. Gruber PJ, Silverman RA, Gottesfeld S, Flaster E: Presence of fever and leukocytosis in acute cholecystitis. Ann Emerg Med 28:273, 1996.

25. Diehl AK, Sugarek NJ, Todd KM: Clinical evaluation for gallstone disease: Usefulness of symptoms and signs in diagnosis. Am J Med 89:29, 1990.

26. Frager D, Baer JW, Medwid SW, et al: Detection of intestinal ischemia in patients with acute small bowel obstruction due to adhesions or hernia: Efficacy of CT. AJR 166:67, 1996.

27. Steinberg W, Tenner S: Medical progress: Acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 330:1198, 1994.

28. Keim V, Teich N, Fiedler F, et al: A comparison of lipase and amylase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with abdominal pain. Pancreas 16:45, 1998.

29. Schwerk WB, Schwarz S, Rothmund M: Sonography in acute colonic diverticulitis: A prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum 35:1077, 1992.

30. Elton TJ, Roth CS, Berquist TH, Silverstein MD: A clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi in emergency departments. J Gen Intern Med 8:57, 1993.

31. Kahn JG, Walker CK, Washington E, et al: Diagnosing pelvic inflammatory disease. JAMA 266:2594, 1991.

32. Lock G, Scholmerich J: Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Hepatogastroenterology 42:234, 1995.

33. Rhee RY, Gloviczki P: Mesenteric venous thrombosis. Surg Clin North Am 77:327, 1997.

34. Telfer S, Fenyo G, Holt PR, de Dombal FT: Acute abdominal pain in patients over 50 years of age. Scand J Gastroenterol (Suppl) 144:47, 1988.

35. Katz MH, French DM: AIDS and the acute abdomen. Emerg Med Clin North Am 7:575, 1989.

36. Silen W: Cope's Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen, 19th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 6.

37. Zoltie N, Cust MP: Analgesia in the acute abdomen. Ann R Coll Surg 68:209, 1986.

38. Attard AR, Corlett MJ, Kidner NJ, et al: Safety of early pain relief for acute abdominal pain. Br Med J 305:554, 1992.

39. Pace S, Burke TF: Intravenous morphine for early pain relief in patients with acute abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med 3:1086, 1996.

40. LoVecchio F, Oster N, Sturmann K, et al: The use of analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain. J Emerg Med 15:775, 1997.

41. Pierik EG, Bruining HA: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can disguise an acute abdomen. Eur J Surg 160:61, 1994.

42. Farber MS, Abrams JH: Antibiotics for the acute abdomen. Surg Clin North Am 77:1395, 1997.

43. Migraine S, Atri M, Bret PM, et al: Spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis: Clinical and sonographic documentation. Radiology 205:55, 1997.

44. Jess P, Bjerregaard B, Brynitz S, et al: Prognosis of acute nonspecific abdominal pain. A prospective study. Am J Surg 144:338, 1982.

45. Doshi M, Heaton KW: Irritable bowel syndrome in patients discharged from surgical wards with non-specific abdominal pain. Br J Surg 81:1216, 1994.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment