Chapter References

1. Litovitz TL, Smilkstein M, Feldberg L, et al: 1996 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers toxic exposure suveillance system. Am J Emerg Med 15:447, 1997.

2. Losanoff J, Kjossev K: Multivisceral injury after liquid caustic ingestion. Surgery 119:720, 1996.

3. Karnak I, Tanyel FC, Bukupamukcu N, Hicsonmez A: Pulmonary effects of household bleach ingestions in children. Clin Pediatr 35:471, 1996.

4. Zargar SA, Kochhar R, Nagi B, et al: Ingestion of corrosive acids: Spectrum of injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract and natural history. Gastroenterology 97:702, 1989.

5. Gaudreault P, Parent M, McGuigan M, et al: Predictability of esophageal injury from signs and symptoms: A study of caustic ingestion in 378 children. Pediatrics 71:767, 1983.

6. Gorman RL, Khin-Maung-Gyi MT, Klein-Schwartz W, et al: Initial symptoms as a predictors of esophageal injury in alkaline corrosive ingestions. Am J Emerg Med 10:189, 1992.

7. Homan CS, Maitra SR, Lane B, et al: Therapeutic effects of water and milk for acute injury of the esophagus. Ann Emerg Med 24:14, 1994.

8. Homan CS, Singer AJ, Henry MC, Thode HC: Thermal effects of neutralization and water dilution for acute alkali exposures in canines. Acad Emerg Med 4:27, 1997.

9. Christesen HB: Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary? Acta Paediatr Scand 84:1177, 1995.

10. Aviram G, Kessler A, Reif S, et al: Corrosive gastritis: Sonographic findings in the acute phase and follow-up. Pediatr Radiol 27:805, 1997.

11. Anderson KD, Rouse T, Randolph JG: A controlled trial of corticosteroids in children with corrosive injury of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 323:637, 1990.

12. Howell JM, Dalsey WC, Hartsell FW, Butzin CA: Steroids for the treatment of corrosive esophageal injury: A statistical analysis of past studies. Am J Emerg Med 10:421, 1992.

13. Oakes DD: Reconsidering the diagnosis and treatment of patients following ingestion of liquid lye. J Clin Gastroenterol 21:85, 1995.

14. Blais BR: Treating chemical eye injuries. Occup Health Saf 65:23, 1996.

15. Hallock GG: Mechanisms of burn injuries secondary to airbag deployment. Ann Plast Surg 39:111, 1997.

16. White JE, McClafferty K, Orton RB, et al: Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation. CMAJ 153:933, 1995.

17. O'Donoghue JM, Al-Ghazal SK, McCann JJ: Caustic soda burns to the extremities: Difficulties in management. Br J Clin Pract 50:108, 1996.

18. Berthert B, Castellani P, Brioche MI, et al: Early operation for corrosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Eur J Surg 162:951, 1996.

19. Ochi K, Ohashi T, Santo S, et al: Surgical treatment for caustic ingestion injury of the pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 522:116-9, 1996.

20. Litovitz T, Schnitz BF: Ingestion of cylindrical and button batteries: An analysis of 2382 cases. Pediatrics 89:747, 1992.

21. Graundis A, Burns MJ, Aaron CK: Regional intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate for hydrofluoric acid burns of the upper extremities. Ann Emerg Med 30:604, 1997.

22. Berkovits RN, Bos CE, Wijburg FA, Holzki J: Caustic injury of the oesophagus: Sixteen years experience, and introduction of a new model oesophageal stent. J Laryngol Otol 110:1041, 1996.

23. Zargar SA, Kochhar R, Mehta SK: The role of fiberoptic endoscopy in the management of corrosive ingestion and modified endoscopic classification of burns. Gastrointest Endosc 37:165, 1991.

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