Chapter References

1. Stiell IG, McKnight RD, Greenberg GH, et al: Interobserver agreement in the examination of acute injury patients. Am J Emerg Med 10:14, 1992.

2. Auleley G-R, Ravaud P, Giraudeau B, et al: Implementation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules in France. JAMA 277:1935, 1997.

3. Auletta AG, Conway WF, Hayes CW, et al: Indications for radiography in patients with acute ankle injuries: Role of the physical examination. AJR 157:789, 1991.

4. Stiell I, Wells G, Laupacis A, et al: Multicentre trial to introduce the Ottawa Ankle Rules for use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. BMJ 311:594, 1995.

5. Stiell IG, McDowell I, Nair RC, et al: Use of radiography in acute ankle injuries: Physicians attitudes and practice. Can Med Assoc J 147: 1671, 1992.

6. Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, et al: Decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. JAMA 269:1127, 1993.

7. Stiell IG, McKnight RD, Greenberg GH, et al: Implementation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules. JAMA 271:827, 1994.

8. Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, et al: A study to develop clinical decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Ann Emerg Med 21:384, 1992.

9. Anis AH, Stiell IG, Stewart DG, et al: Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Ottawa Ankle Rules. Ann Emerg Med 26:422, 1995.

10. Verbeek PR, Stiell IG, Hebert G, et al: Ankle radiograph utilization after learning a decision rule; A 12 month follow-up. Acad Emerg Med 4:776, 1997.

11. Pigman EC, Klug RK, Sanford S, et al: Evaluation of the Ottawa clinical decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle and midfoot injuries in the emergency department: An independent site assessment. Ann Emerg Med 24:41, 1994.

12. Verma S, Hamilton K, Hawkins HH, et al: Clinical application of the Ottawa Ankle Rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries: An independent site assessment. AJR 169:825, 1997.

13. Salt P, Clancy M: Implementation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules by nurses working in an accident and emergency department. J Accid Emerg Med 14:363, 1997.

14. Lucchesi GM, Cerasani C, Jackson RE, et al: Sensitivity of Ottawa Ankle Rules. Ann Emerg Med 26:1, 1995.

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16. Weissman BN: The radiologic diagnosis of subtle extremity injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am 3:600, 1985.

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20. Karlsson J, Eriksson BI, Sward L: Early functional treatment for acute ligament injuries of the ankle. Scand J Med Sci Sports 6:341, 1996.

21. Eiff MP, Smith AT, Smith GE: Early mobilization versus immobilization in the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. Am J Sports Med 22:83, 1994.

22. Munk B, Holm-Christensen K, Lind T: Long term outcome after ruptured lateral ankle ligaments. Acta Orthop Scand 66:452, 1995

23. Dupont M, Beliveau P, Theiriault G: The efficacy of antiinflammatory medication in the treatment of the acutely sprained ankle. Am J Sports Med 15:41, 1987.

24. Williamson JB, George TK, Simpson DC, et al: Ultrasound in the treatment of ankle sprains. Injury 17:176, 1986.

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