Chapter References

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2. Wo CC, Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, et al: Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness. Crit Care Med 21:218, 1993.

3. Cayten CG, Murphy JG, Stahl WM: Basic life support versus advanced life support for injured patients with an injury severity score of 10 or more. J Trauma 35:460, 1993.

4. Maddox KL, Bickell WH, Pepe PE, et al: Prospective randomized evaluation of antishock MAST in posttraumatic hypotension. J Trauma 26:779, 1986.

5. Kaweski SM, Sise MJ, Virgilio RW: The effect of prehospital fluid on survival in trauma patients. J Trauma 30:1215, 1990.

6. Domeier RM, O'Connor RE, Delbridge TR, Hunt RC: National Association of EMS Physicians Position Paper: Use of pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG). Prehosp Emerg Care 1:32, 1997.

7. O'Connor RE, Domeier RM: Collective Review: An evaluation of the pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG) in various clinical settings. Prehosp Emerg Care 1:36, 1997.

8. Honigman B, Lowenstein FR, Moore EE, et al: The role of the pneumatic shock garment in penetrating cardiac wounds. JAMA 266:2398, 1991.

9. Spaite DW, Valenzuela TC, Criss EA, et al: A prospective in-field comparison of intravenous line placement by urban and nonurban emergency medical personnel. Ann Emerg Med 24:209, 1994.

10. Bickell WM, Wall MJ, Pepe PE, et al: Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 331:1105, 1994.

11. Stern SA, Dronen SC, Birrer P, Wang X: Effect of blood pressure on hemorrhage volume and survival in a near-fatal hemorrhage model incorporating a vascular injury. Ann Emerg Med 22:155, 1993.

12. Dries DJ: Hypotensive resuscitation. Shock 6:311, 1996.

13. Porter JM, Ivatury RR: In search of the optimal end points of resuscitation in trauma patients: A review. J Trauma 44:908, 1998.

14. Wagner BKJ, D'Amelio LT: Pharmacologic and clinical consideration in selecting crystalloid, colloid, and oxygen carrying resuscitation fluids. Clin Pharm 12:335, 1993.

15. Peter RM, Hargens AR: Protein vs electrolytes and all of the Starling forces. Arch Surg 116:1293, 1981.

16. Schierhout G, Roberts I: Fluid resuscitation with colloid or crystalloid solutions in critically ill patients: A systematic review of randomized trials. Br Med J 316:961, 1998.

17. Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, et al: The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. N Engl J Med 334:1685, 1996.

18. Hess J: Blood substitutes. Semin Hematol 33:369, 1996.

19. Sprung J, Mackenzie CF, Barnas GM, et al: Oxygen transport and cardiovascular effects of resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock using hemoglobin solutions. Crit Care Med 23:1540, 1995.

20. Mattox KL, Maningas PA, Moore EE, et al: Prehospital hypertonic saline/dextran infusion for post-traumatic hypotension: The USA multicenter trial. Ann Surg 213:482, 1991.

21. Vassar MJ: A multicenter trail for resuscitation of injured patients with 7.5% sodium chloride. Arch Surg 128:1003, 1993.

22. Manikis P, Jankowski S, Zhang H, et al: Correlation of serial blood lactate levels to organ failure and mortality after trauma. Am J Emerg Med 13:699, 1995.

23. Domsky M, Wilson RF, Heins J: Intraoperative end-tidal carbon dioxide values and derived calculations correlated with outcome: Prognosis and capnography. Crit Care Med 23:1497,1995.

24. Mikulaschek AS, Henry SM, Donovan R, et al: Serum lactate is not predicted by anion gap or base excess after trauma resuscitation. J Trauma 40:218, 1996.

25. Development Task Force of the College of American Pathologists: Practice parameters for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets. JAMA 271:777, 1994.

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