Chapter References

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2. Wo CC, Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, et al: Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness. Crit Care Med 21:218, 1993.

3. Cayten CG, Murphy JG, Stahl WM: Basic life support versus advanced life support for injured patients with an injury severity score of 10 or more. J Trauma 35:460, 1993.

4. Maddox KL, Bickell WH, Pepe PE, et al: Prospective randomized evaluation of antishock MAST in posttraumatic hypotension. J Trauma 26:779, 1986.

5. Kaweski SM, Sise MJ, Virgilio RW: The effect of prehospital fluid on survival in trauma patients. J Trauma 30:1215, 1990.

6. Domeier RM, O'Connor RE, Delbridge TR, Hunt RC: National Association of EMS Physicians Position Paper: Use of pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG). Prehosp Emerg Care 1:32, 1997.

7. O'Connor RE, Domeier RM: Collective Review: An evaluation of the pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG) in various clinical settings. Prehosp Emerg Care 1:36, 1997.

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9. Spaite DW, Valenzuela TC, Criss EA, et al: A prospective in-field comparison of intravenous line placement by urban and nonurban emergency medical personnel. Ann Emerg Med 24:209, 1994.

10. Bickell WM, Wall MJ, Pepe PE, et al: Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 331:1105, 1994.

11. Stern SA, Dronen SC, Birrer P, Wang X: Effect of blood pressure on hemorrhage volume and survival in a near-fatal hemorrhage model incorporating a vascular injury. Ann Emerg Med 22:155, 1993.

12. Dries DJ: Hypotensive resuscitation. Shock 6:311, 1996.

13. Porter JM, Ivatury RR: In search of the optimal end points of resuscitation in trauma patients: A review. J Trauma 44:908, 1998.

14. Wagner BKJ, D'Amelio LT: Pharmacologic and clinical consideration in selecting crystalloid, colloid, and oxygen carrying resuscitation fluids. Clin Pharm 12:335, 1993.

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18. Hess J: Blood substitutes. Semin Hematol 33:369, 1996.

19. Sprung J, Mackenzie CF, Barnas GM, et al: Oxygen transport and cardiovascular effects of resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock using hemoglobin solutions. Crit Care Med 23:1540, 1995.

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22. Manikis P, Jankowski S, Zhang H, et al: Correlation of serial blood lactate levels to organ failure and mortality after trauma. Am J Emerg Med 13:699, 1995.

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24. Mikulaschek AS, Henry SM, Donovan R, et al: Serum lactate is not predicted by anion gap or base excess after trauma resuscitation. J Trauma 40:218, 1996.

25. Development Task Force of the College of American Pathologists: Practice parameters for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets. JAMA 271:777, 1994.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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