Chapter References

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2. Jantos TJ, Paris PM, Menegazzi JJ, Yealy DM: Analgesic practice for acute orthopedic trauma pain in Costa Rican emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med 28:145, 1996.

3. Reichl M, Bodiwala GG: Use of analgesia in severe pain in the accident and emergency department. Arch Emerg Med 4:25, 1987.

4. Jones JS, Johnson K, McNinch M: Age as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. Am J Emerg Med 14:157, 1996.

5. Todd KH, Samaroo N, Hoffman JR: Ethnicity as a risk for inadequate emergency department analgesia. JAMA 269:1537, 1993.

6. Lewis LM, Lasater LC, Brooks CB: Are emergency physicians too stingy with analgesics? South Med J 87:7, 1994.

7. Paris PM: No pain, no pain. Am J Emerg Med 7:660, 1989.

8. Sacchetti A, Schafermeyer R, Gerardi M, et al: Pediatric analgesia and sedation. Ann Emerg Med 23:237, 1994.

9. Menegazzi JJ, Paris PM, Kersteen CH, et al: A randomized, controlled trial of the use of music during laceration repair. Ann Emerg Med 20:348, 1991.

10. Ward KR, Yealy DM: Systemic analgesia and sedation for procedures, in Roberts JR, Hedges JR (eds): Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1998, pp 516-531.

11. Bailey PL, Pace NL, Ashburn MA, et al: Frequent hypoxemia and apnea after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Anesthesiology 73:826, 1990.

12. Wright SW: Conscious sedation in the emergency department: The value of capnography and pulse oximetry. Ann Emerg Med 21:551, 1992.

13. Council on Scientific Affairs AMA: The use of pulse oximetry during conscious sedation. JAMA 270:1463, 1993.

14. Szeto HH, Inturrisi CE, Houde R, et al: Accumulation of normeperidine, an active metabolite of meperidine, in patients with renal failure of cancer. Ann Intern Med 86:738, 1977.

15. Hupert CP, Yacoub M, Turgeon LR: Effect of hydroxyzine on morphine analgesia for the treatment of postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 59:690, 1980.

16. Chudnofsky CR, Wright SW, Dronen SC, et al: The safety of fentanyl use in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 18:635, 1989.

17. Rosow CE, Moss J, Philbin DM, Savarese JJ: Histamine release during morphine and fentanyl anesthesia. Anesthesiology 56:93, 1982.

18. Wright SW, Chudnofsky CR, Dronen SC, et al: Comparison of midazolam and diazepam for conscious sedation in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 22:201, 1993.

19. Swanson ER, Seaberg DC, Mathias S: The use of propofol for sedation in the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine 3:234, 19

20. Chudnofsky CR: Group TEMCSS: Safety and efficacy of flumazenil in reversing conscious sedation in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 4:944, 1997.

21. Sklar DP: Joint commission on accreditation of healthcare organizations requirements for sedation. Ann Emerg Med 27:412, 1996.

22. American College of Emergency Physicians: Clinical policy for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 31:663, 1998.

23. Task Force on Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists: A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists task force on sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 84:459, 1996.

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