Chapter References

1. Smith DJ, Robson MC, Heggers JP: Frostbite and other cold-related injuries, in Auerbach PS, Geehr EC (eds): Management of Wilderness and Environmental Injuries, 3d ed. St Louis, Mosby, 1995, pp 129-145.

2. Burr RE: Trench foot. J Wilderness Med 4:348, 1993.

3. Tek DT, Mackey S: Non-freezing injury in a Marine infantry battalion. J Wilderness Med 4:353, 1993.

4. Hwang JCF, Himel HN, Edlich RF: Frostbite of the face after recreational misuse of nitrous oxide. Burns 22:4, 1996.

5. Kurbat RS, Pollack VP: Facial injury and airway threat from inhalant abuse: A case report. J Emerg Med 16:2, 1998.

6. Gamble WB, Bonnecarre ER: Coffee, tea, or frostbite? Aviation, Space Environ Med 67:9, 1996.

7. Carruthers R: Chilblains (pernosis). Aust Fam Physician 17: 968, 1988.

8. Vogel EJ, Dellon AL: Frostbite injuries of the hand. Clin Plast Surg 16:565, 1989.

9. Jackson D: The diagnosis of the depth of burning. Br J Surg 40:588, 1953.

10. Heggers JP, Phillips LG, McCauley RL, Robson MC: Frostbite: Experimental and clinical evaluations of treatment. J Wilderness Med 1:27, 1990.

11. Heggers JP, Robson MC, Manaualen K, et al: Experimental and clinical observations on frostbite. Ann Emerg Med 16:1056, 1987.

12. McCauley RL, Heggers JP, Robson MC: Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss. Postgrad Med 88:8, 1990.

13. McCauley RL, Hing DN, Robson MC, Heggers JP: Frostbite injuries: A rational approach based on the pathophysiology. J Trauma 23:143, 1983.

14. Valnicek SM, Chasmar LR, Clapson JB: Frostbite on the prairies: A 12-year review. Plast Reconstr Surg 92:4, 1993.

15. Skolnick AA: Early data suggest clot-dissolving drug may help save frostbite limbs from amputation. JAMA 267:2008, 1992.

16. Saito S, Shimada H: Effect of prostaglandin E 1, analogue administration on peripheral skin temperature at high altitude. Angiology 45:455, 1994.

17. Mehta RC, Wilson MA: Frostbite injury: Prediction of tissue viability with triple-phase bone scanning. Radiology 170:511, 1989.

18. Salini Z, Vas W, Tang-Barton P, et al: Assessment of tissue in frostbite by 99m-Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy. AJR 42:415,1984.

19. Barker JR, Haws MJ, Brown RE, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of severe frostbite injuries. Ann Plast Surg 38:275, 1997.

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