Chapter References

1. Goldner TE, Lawson HW, Xia Z, Atrash HK: Surveillance for ectopic pregnancy—United States, 1970-1989. MMWR 42:73, 1993.

2. Stovall TG, Kellerman AL, Ling FW, et al: Emergency department diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med 19:1098, 1990.

3. Kaplan BC, Dart RG, Moskos M, et al: Ectopic pregnancy: prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy. Ann Emerg Med 28:10, 1996.

4. Kingdom JC, Kelly T, MacLean AB, et al: Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotropin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy. BMJ 302:1308, 1991.

5. Norman RJ, Buck RH, Rom L, Joubert SM: Blood or urine measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin for detection of ectopic pregnancy? A comparative study of qualitative and quantitative methods in both fluids. Obstet Gynecol 153:724, 1988.

6. Kadar N, Romero R. Further observations on serial human chorionic gonadotropin patterns in ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortions. Fertil Steril 50:367, 1988.

7. McCord ML, Muram D, Buster, JE, et al: Single serum progesterone as a screen for ectopic pregnancy: Exchanging specificity and sensitivity to obtain optimal test performance. Fertil Steril 66:513, 1996.

8. Tal J, Haddad S, Gordon N, Timor Tritsch I: Heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies: A literature review from 1971 to 1993. Fertil Steril 66(1):1, 1996.

9. Jehle D, Davis E, Evans T, et al: Emergency department sonography by emergency physicians. Am J Emerg Med 7:605, 1989.

10. Mateer J, Plummer D, Heller M, et al: Model curriculum for physician training in emergency ultrasound. Ann Emerg Med 23:95, 1994.

11. Schiager D, Lazzareschi G, Whitten D, Sanders AB: A prospective study of ultrasonography in the ED by emergency physicians. Am J Emerg Med 12:185, 1994.

12. Mateer JR, Aiman EJ, Brown MH, Olson DW: Ultrasonographic examination by emergency physicians of patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy. Acad Emerg Med 2:867, 1995.

13. Wojack JC, Clayton MJ, Nolan TE: Outcomes of ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy—Dependence on observer experience. Invest Radio¡ 302:115, 1995.

14. Zinn HL, Cohen HL, Zinn DL: Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: Importance of transabdominal imaging. J Ultrasound Med. 16:603, 1997.

15. Nyberg DA, Mack LA, Laning F, et al: Early pregnancy complications: Endovaginal monographic findings correlated with human chorionic gonadotropin levels. Radiology 167:619, 1988.

16. Brown DL, Doubilet PM: Transvaginal sonography for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: Positivity and performance characteristics. J Ultrasound Med 13:259, 1994.

17. Spandorfer SD, Barnhart KT: Endometrial stripe thickness as a predictor of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril 66:474, 1996.

18. Kadar N, DeVore G, Romero R: Discriminatory hCG zone: Its use in the sonographic evaluation for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 58:156, 1981.

19. Dart RG, Kaplan B, Cox C: Transvaginal ultrasound in patients with low beta-human chorionic gonadotropin values: How often is the study diagnostic? Ann Emerg Med 30:135, 1997.

20. Barnhart K, Mennuti MT, Benjamin I, et al: Prompt diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in an emergency department setting. Obstet Gynecol 81:1010, 1994.

21. Braffman BH, Coleman BG, Ramchandani P, et al: Emergency department screening for ectopic pregnancy: A prospective US study. Radiology 190:797, 1994.

22. Vermesh M, Graczykowski J, Sauer M: Revaluation of the role of culdocentesis in the management of ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:411, 1990.

23. Krol LV, Abbott T: The current role of culdocentesis. Am J Emerg Med 10:354, 1992.

24. Yao M, Tuland T: Current status of surgical and nonsurgical management of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril 67:421, 1997.

25. Carson SA, Buster JE: Ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med 329:1174, 1993.

26. Stovall TG, Ling FW: Single-dose methotrexate: An expanded clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:1759, 1993.

27. Ander DS, Ward KR: Medical management of ectopic pregnancy—The role of methotrexate. J Emerg Med 15:177, 1997.

28. Engelsbel HPJ, Mol S, Van der Veen F, et al: Randomized trial of systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in tubal pregnancy. Lancet 350:774, 1997.

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