Chapter References

1. Webb WA: Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Update. Gastrointest Endosc 41:39, 1995.

2. Guideline for the management of ingested foreign bodies. Gastrointest Endosc 41:622, 1995.

3. Binder L, Anderson WA: Pediatric gastrointestinal foreign body ingestions. Ann Emerg Med 13:112, 1984.

4. Ginsberg GG: Management of ingested foreign objects and food bolus impactions. Gastrointest Endosc 41:33, 1995.

5. Blair SR, Graeber GM, Cruzzavala JL, et al: Current management of esophageal impactions. Chest 104:1205, 1993.

6. Stack LB, Munter DW: Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Emerg Med Clin North Am 14:493, 1996.

7. Barsan WG, Lowell JM, Wolf LR: Disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, in Rosen P, Barkin R, Danzl DF, et al (eds): Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book 1998, pp 1958-1980.

8. Hugelmeyer CD, Moorhead JC, Horenblas L, Bayer MJ: Fatal lead encephalopathy following foreign body ingestion: Case report. J Emerg Med 6:397, 1988.

9. Tibbling L, Bjorkhoel A, Jansson E, Stenkvist M: Effect of spasmolytic drugs on esophageal foreign bodies. Dysphagia 10:126, 1995.

10. Bell AF, Eibling DE: Nifedipine in the treatment of distal esophageal food impaction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 114:682, 1988.

11. Caravati EM, Bennett DL, McElwee NE: Pediatric coin ingestion: A prospective study on the utility of routine roentgenograms. Am J Dis Child 143:549, 1989.

12. Litovitz T, Schmitz BF: Ingestion of cylindrical and button batteries: An analysis of 2382 cases. Pediatrics 89:727, 1992.

13. Paul RI, Jaffe DM: Sharp object ingestions in children: Illustrative case and literature review. Pediatr Emerg Care 4:245, 1988.

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