Chapter References

1. Brewer RJ, Golden GT, Hitch DC, et al: Abdominal pain: An analysis of 1,000 consecutive cases in a university hospital emergency room. Am J Surg 131:219, 1976.

2. Bugliosi TF, Meloy TD, Vukov LF: Acute abdominal pain in the elderly. Ann Emerg Med 19:1383, 1990.

3. McCaig LF: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1996 Emergency Department Summary. Advance data from vital and health statistics, no. 293. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1997.

4. McNamara RM, Rousseau E, Sanders AB: Geriatric emergency medicine: A survey of practicing emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med 21:796, 1992.

5. Baum SA, Rubenstein LZ: Old people in the emergency room: Age related differences in emergency department use and care. J Am Geriatr Soc 35:398, 1987.

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7. Bender JS: Approach to the acute abdomen. Med Clin North Am 73:1413, 1989.

8. Fenyo G: Diagnostic problems of acute abdominal pain in the aged. Acta Chir Scand 140:396, 1974.

9. Owens BJ, Hamit HF: Appendicitis in the elderly. Ann Surg 172:306, 1970.

10. Ponka JL, Welborn JK, Brush BE: Acute abdominal pain in aged patients: An analysis of 200 cases. J Am Geriatr Soc 11:993, 1963.

11. Marston WA, Ahlquist R, Johnson G, et al: Misdiagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 16:17, 1992.

12. Greenlee HB, Pienkos EJ, Vanderbilt PC, et al: Acute large bowel obstruction. Arch Surg 108:470, 1974.

13. Horattas MC, Guyton DP, Wu D: A reappraisal of appendicitis in the elderly. Am J Surg 160:291, 1990.

14. DeDombal FT, Matharu SS, Staniland JR, et al: Presentation of cancer to hospital as "acute abdominal pain." Br J Surg 67:413, 1980.

15. Parker LJ, Vukov LF, Wollan PC: Emergency department evaluation of geriatric patients with acute cholecystitis. Acad Emerg Med 4:51, 1997.

16. Glenn F: Surgical management of acute cholecystitis in patients 65 years of age and older. Ann Surg 193:56, 1981.

17. Andersson A, Bergdahl L, Van Der Linden W: Volvulus of the cecum. Ann Surg 181:876, 1976.

18. Anderson JR, Lee D: The management of sigmoid volvulus. Br J Surg 68:117, 1981.

19. Hyatt R: Colonic pseudo-obstruction: An important complication in hospitalized elderly patients. Age Ageing 16:145, 1987.

20. Boley SJ, Sprayregan S, Siegelman SS, et al: Initial results from an aggressive roentgenological and surgical approach to acute mesenteric ischemia. Surgery 82:848, 1977.

21. Ottinger LW: Mesenteric ischemia. N Engl J Med 307:535, 1982.

22. Ernst CB: Abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med 328:1167, 193.

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