Chapter References

1. Ho IK, Harris RA: Mechanism of action of barbiturates. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 21:83, 1981.

2. Lester D: Barbiturate sales and their use for suicide. Percept Mot Skills 69:442,1989.

3. Stern TA, Mulley AG, Thibault GE: Life-threatening drug overdose. JAMA 251:1983, 1984.

4. Coupey SM: Barbiturates. Pediatr Rev 18:260, 1997.

5. Bertino JJ, Reed MD: Barbiturate and nonbarbiturate sedative hypnotic intoxication in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 33:703, 1986.

6. Humphry D: Final Exit. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing, 1991.

7. Litovitz TL, Klein-Schwartz W, Dyer KS, et al: 1997 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Data Collection System. Am J Emerg Med 16:445, 1998.

8. Reinisch JM, Sanders SA, Mortensen EL, et al: In utero exposure to phenobarbital and intelligence deficits in men. JAMA 274:1518, 1995.

9. Sampson I: Barbiturates. Mt Sinai J Med 50:283, 1983.

10. McCarron MM, Schulze BW, Walberg CB, et al: Short-acting barbiturate overdosage: Correlation of intoxication score with serum barbiturate concentration. JAMA 248:51, 1982.

11. Shubin H, Well MH: Shock associated with barbiturate intoxication. JAMA 215:263, 1971.

12. Berg M, Berlinger W, Goldberg M, et al: Acceleration of the body clearance of phenobarbital by oral activated charcoal. N Engl J Med 307:647, 1982.

13. Levy G: Gastrointestinal clearance of drugs with activated charcoal. N Engl J Med 307:676, 1982.

14. Pond S, Olson K, Osterloh J, et al: Randomized study of the treatment of phenobarbital overdose with repeated doses of activated charcoal. JAMA 251:3104, 1984.

15. Khantzian EJ, McKenna GJ: Acute toxic and withdrawal reactions associated with drug use and abuse. Ann Intern Med 90:351, 1979.

158 BENZODIAZEPINES

George M. Bosse Pharmacology

C||nica|.Features Treatment

BenzodiazepineAbuse., and. Dependence Chapter, References

Benzodiazepines are pharmacologic agents commonly used for the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. They also are used in conscious sedation as well as general anesthesia. Fourteen generic benzodiazepines are currently approved for use in the United States ( T§bl§...15§:1).

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