Chapter References

1. McGinnis JM, Foege WH: Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 270:2207, 1993.

2. Update: Syringe-exchange programs: United States, 1996. MMWR 46:565 1997.

3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies: Mid-Year Preliminary Estimates from the 1996 Drug Abuse Warning Network. Rockville, MD, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1997.

4. Harwood H: Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Fairfax, VA, Lewin Group, 1998.

5. Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University: Substance Abuse, The Nation's Number One Health Problem: Key Indicators for Policy. Princeton, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1993.

6. National Center on Addictions and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA): Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population, Executive Summary.

htt p;//www.casacoium^

7. Institute of Medicine: Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research. Washington, National Academy Press, 1996.

8. Cherpital CJ: Screening for alcohol problems in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 26:158, 1995.

9. Bernstein E, Bernstein J, Levenson S: Project ASSERT: An ED-based intervention to increase access to primary care, preventive services, and the substance abuse treatment system. Ann Emerg Med 30:181, 1997.

10. Dunn CW, Donovan DM, Gentilello L: Practical guidelines for performing alcohol intervention in trauma centers. J Trauma 42:299, 1997.

11. Lowenstein SR, Weissberg MP, Terry D: Alcohol intoxication, injuries and dangerous behaviors and the revolving emergency department door. J Trauma 30:1252, 1990.

12. Bernstein E, Tracey A, Bernstein J, Williams C: Emergency department detection and referral rate for patients with problem drinking. Substance Abuse 17:69, 1996.

13. Weisner C, Schmidt L: Expanding the frame of health services research in the drug abuse field. HSR 30:707, 1995.

14. Chavetz ME, Blane HT, Abrams HS, et al: Establishing treatment relations with alcoholics. J Nerv Ment Dis 134:395, 1962.

15. Bien TH, Miller WR, Tonigan JS: Brief interventions for alcohol problems: A review. Br J Addict 83:315, 1993.

16. WHO Brief Intervention Study Group: A cross-national trial of brief interventions with heavy drinkers. Am J Public Health 86:948, 1996.

17. Fleming MF, Barry KL, Manwill LB, et al: Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: A randomized controlled trial in community based primary care practice. JAMA 277:1039, 1997.

18. Gerstein DR, Harwood HJ, Sutter N, et al: Evaluating Recovery Services: The California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment. Sacramento, State of California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, 1994.

19. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: The Physician's Guide to Helping Patients with Alcohol Problems. Washington, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health publication 95-3769, 1995.

20. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC, 1994.

21. Steinweg DL, Worth H: Alcoholism: The keys to the CAGE. Am J Med 94:520, 1993.

22. Miller WR, Rollnick S: Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviors. New York, Guilford, 1991.

23. Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Rossi JS, et al: Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol 13:39, 1994.

24. Rollnick S, Heather N, Bell A: Negotiating behavior change in medical settings: The development of brief motivational interviewing. J Ment Health 1:25, 1992.

25. Rollnick S, Kinnersley P, Stott N: Methods of helping patients with behavior change. Br Med J 307:188, 1993.

26. Des Jarlais DC, Paone D, Friedman SR, et al: Regulating controversial programs for unpopular people: Methadone maintenance and syringe exchange programs. Am J Public Health 85:1577, 1995.

27. Lurie P, Drucker E: An opportunity lost: HIV infections associated with lack of a national needle-exchange programme in the USA. Lancet 349:604, 1997.

28. Hurley SF, Jolley DJ, Kaldor JM: Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection. Lancet 349:1797, 1997.

29. Hagan H, Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, et al: Reduced risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among injection drug users in the Tacoma syringe exchange program. Am J Public Health 85:1531, 1995.

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